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Supply and Demand Models of Financial Markets. Chapter 21, 26, 29 30. Three Markets. Loanable Funds Market Determines Interest Rate in Capital Markets Liquidity Market Determines Money Market Rate Forex Market Determines Foreign Exchange Rate. Money Markets. Interest Rates.

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three markets
Three Markets
  • Loanable Funds Market
    • Determines Interest Rate in Capital Markets
  • Liquidity Market
    • Determines Money Market Rate
  • Forex Market
    • Determines Foreign Exchange Rate
bond yields and interest rate
Bond Yields and Interest Rate
  • Bank accounts typically have very simple interest rates.

Balancet+1 = (1+i) ∙ Depositt

  • Short-term bills have equivalent rates called yields.

Face Valuet+1 = (1+i) ∙ Pricet

  • Simple loans could also be written

Repaymentt+1 = (1+i) ∙ Principalt

liquid assets
Liquid Assets

Two kinds of assets

  • Liquid Assets (Currency, Checking Accounts, Savings Accounts) that are useful for transactions which pay zero or below market interest rates.
  • Money market assets (Government bills, commercial paper, jumbo CD’s) that pay a market rate, i, but which cannot be used for transactions
liquidity demand
Q: Why does the money demand curve slope down?

A: The greater is the market interest rate, the greater is the opportunity cost of holding money.

Q: What shifts the money demand curve?

A: An increase in GDP will increase the need for money for transactions shifting the demand curve out. A reduction in GDP will shift the demand curve in.

Liquidity Demand
money supply
Money Supply
  • Supply of monetary assets governed by central bank.
  • Prints currency
  • Makes reserves available to banks
  • Governs fraction of deposits that banks must keep.
money market
Money Market

Money Supply

Money Demand

i

i*

M

equilibrium in the money market
Equilibrium in the Money Market
  • If interest rates are too high, excess supply of money:
    • people will want to buy interest paying assets like bank accounts or treasury bills.
    • Bond dealers and banks can reduce the interest rates they are willing to offer
  • If interest rates are too low, excess demand for money:
    • people will want to sell interest paying assets like bank accounts or treasury bills to get more liquidity.
    • Bond dealers and banks must raise interest rates.
money market gdp rises
Money Market: GDP Rises

Money Demand

Money Supply

i

i**

2

i*

1

Money Demand’

M

operating targets target interest rates
Operating Targets: Target Interest Rates
  • Most big country CB’s target interbank interest rates, the rate at which banks lend reserves to one another (in HK, this is called what?)
money supply15
Money Supply
  • Government can control the money supply and can shift the curve in or out by decreasing or increasing money supply.
  • What does the central bank need to do to money supply to increase the interest rate?
monetary policy money supply shrinks
Monetary Policy: Money Supply Shrinks

Money Demand

Money Supply

i

i**

2

i*

1

Money

Supply’

M

japan and the liquidity trap
Japan and the Liquidity Trap
  • BBC Story Download
  • During the 1990’s and this decade Bank of Japan reduced their interest rate ultimately implementing ZIRP – Zero Interest Rate Policy
  • Interest rate cannot be set at a rate below zero because of the existence of an alternative financial instrument that always pays better than negative rates.
money market at zirp
Money Market at ZIRP

Money Demand

Money Supply

i

i*

1

2

3

i**

0

M

nominal and real interest rates
Nominal and Real Interest Rates
  • Nominal return represents how much money you will receive after 1 year for giving up 1 dollar of money today
  • Real return represents how many goods you can buy if you give up the opportunity to buy 1 good today.
  • Nominal interest rate is money interest rate. Real interest rate is goods interest rate.
slide22
Imagine a 1 year loan [T =1]: The lender gives up some goods to make a loan and will buy goods in the future with the repayment.
  • If the price of goods at time t is Pt, the foregone current goods are
  • The goods value of the future repayment is
real interest rate
Real Interest Rate
  • The real interest rate on the loan is defined as the future goods received relative to current goods foregone
measuring the real interest rate
Measuring the Real Interest Rate
  • Two alternatives
  • Use nominal interest minus consensus inflation forecast
  • Use the yield on inflation protected securities.
tips bond
TIPS Bond
  • The US Treasury offers bonds whose principal and coupon payments increase with the inflation rate.
  • Investors are paid off in terms of real purchasing power.
  • Yield is equivalent to a real interest rate.

Additional Information from U.S. Treasury

loanable funds market27
Loanable Funds Market
  • Consider the financial market at its broadest and most abstract.
    • an amalgamation of the bond market and the lending market (banks, etc.)
  • Map the relationship between the interest rate and the quantity of funds that are lent.
    • Supply curve represents the behavior of savers & lenders
    • Demand curve represents the behavior of borrowers
  • Could represent the global financial market or a large national market.
supply curve loanable funds
Supply Curve: Loanable Funds
  • Why does the supply curve slope up?
    • When real interest rates offered by banks are high, savers are rewarded with more future consumption and are likely to be induced to save more.
    • Caveat: If some savers are setting a target for their level of wealth at retirement, a higher interest rate reduces the amount they need to save.
      • For this reason, many economists believe saving curve is very inelastic.
demand curve loanable funds
Demand Curve: Loanable Funds
  • Why does the demand curve slope down?
    • Firms borrow to finance investment projects. If the return on investment falls below the interest rate, the project is not worthwhile. The higher the interest rate, the fewer projects fall below the hurdle.
    • Households borrow to finance housing. The higher are interest rates, the smaller is the house that the householders can buy with a mortgage payment that they can afford.
savings
Savings
  • We divide savings into 2 parts:
global economy
Global Economy
  • Additional Source of Savings

Loanable Funds Supply = S+KA =

National Savings + Net Capital Inflow from Abroad (+/-)

  • Two Effects
    • Supply Curve Becomes More Elastic

More globalized, more elastic

    • Global Financial Markets also a source of shifts in Supply Curve
questions
Questions
  • Compare Investment Boom in a very globalized economy with one in a less globalized economy. What happens to investment & interest rates?
  • What happens to a a globalized economy when there is an increase in overseas rates (or an increase in the rate premium).
government deficits globalized economy r doesn t rise by as much i doesn t fall as much
Government Deficits(Globalized Economy)[r Doesn’t Rise by as Much, I doesn’t fall as much]

r

S’

I

S

S’+KA

2

S+KA

r**

r*

1

LF*

LF**

LF

investment boom globalized economy r doesn t rise by as much i rises by more
Investment Boom(Globalized Economy)[r Doesn’t Rise by as Much, I Rises by More]

r

I

S

S+KA

r**

2

I’

r*

1

LF*

LF**

LF

savings glut
Savings Glut
  • Theory put forth by Fed Chairman explaining the U.S. trade deficit.
  • Washington Post Article Download
capital account
Capital Account
  • Model can be used to derive equilibrium real interest rates and national saving and investment as well as capital inflows (designated KA).
  • Trade balance is opposite of the capital account.
  • Trade balances are temporary.
net capital outflows goods income outflows
Net Capital Outflows = ‘Goods & Income Outflows
  • Private Savings = Y + NFI -Tax – C
  • Public Savings = Tax – G
  • S = Y+ NFI – C – G
  • -KA = S – I = NFI + (Y – C – G – I)
  • -KA = NFI + NX = CA
ex ante rate and the fisher effect
Ex Ante Rate and the Fisher Effect
  • Savings and investment decisions must be made before future inflation is known so they must be made on the basis of an ex ante (predicted) real interest rate.
  • Fisher Hypothesis: Ex ante real interest rate is determined by forces in the financial market. Money interest rate is just the real ex ante rate plus the market’s consensus forecast of inflation.
great inflation of the 1970 s
Great Inflation of the 1970’s

Source: St. Louis Federal Reserve http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/

why do exchange rates change
Why do exchange rates change?
  • Relative values of two currency determined by supply and demand by traders of the two currencies.
  • People trade currencies to engage in foreign trade and international investment.
  • Monetary policy is a prime driver of exchange rates.
    • And vice versa, Some economies structure monetary policy around exchange rate.
forex market supply demand
Forex Market: Supply & Demand

Consider the spot foreign exchange market.

  • Price of US$: S is the price of US$ in terms of DCU.
  • Supply of US$: Foreign people who want to acquire DCU to buy domestic goods or assets.
    • When US$ becomes expensive, domestic goods or assets get cheap and foreign investors are attracted to domestic currency.
  • Demand for US$: Domestic people who want to acquire US$ for foreign purchases or overseas investment.
    • When US$ get cheap, US$ goods or assets get cheap and demand for US$ rises
increase in desired capital outflows by domestic investors desired purchases of foreign goods
Increase in Desired Capital Outflows by Domestic Investors/ Desired Purchases of Foreign Goods

S

S**

2

Domestic Currency Depreciates

S*

1

Demand '

Supply

Demand

increase in desired capital inflows by foreign investors desired purchases of domestic goods
Increase in Desired Capital Inflows by Foreign Investors/ Desired Purchases of Domestic Goods

S

Supply

Supply'

Domestic Currency Appreciates

1

S*

S**

2

Demand

us monetary policy causes us interest rates go up relative demand for us goes up
US Monetary Policy Causes US$ Interest Rates Go UpRelative Demand for US$ Goes Up

S

2

S**

Domestic Currency Depreciates

S*

1

Supply'

Demand '

Supply

Demand

domestic monetary policy causes d c interest rates go up relative demand for us goes down
Domestic Monetary Policy CausesD.C. Interest Rates Go UpRelative Demand for US$ Goes Down

S

Supply

Supply'

Domestic Currency Appreciates

1

S*

S**

2

Demand

Demand '

monetary policy exchange rates
Monetary Policy & Exchange Rates
  • The central impact of the foreign currency intervention is on domestic interest rates.
  • Monetary policy that shifts domestic interest rates will also shift exchange rates regardless of whether it occurs through currency intervention, OMO, or some other change in quantity of bank reserves.
  • Monetary policy that does not shift interest rates will not shift exchange rates.
foreign currency intervention
Foreign Currency Intervention
  • Foreign currency purchase:
    • Central bank purchases foreign currency
    • Credit reserve accounts of counterparty commercial bank
    • More reserves pushes down interest rates
  • Increases demand for and reduces supply of US$ in forex market
  • Foreign currency sale
    • Central bank sells foreign currency
    • Debit reserve accounts of purchasing bank
    • Less reserves pushes up interest rates
    • Reduces demand for and increases supply of US$ in forex market
slide60
Excess Demand for Foreign Currency

S

1. Domestic Currency Faces Depreciation Pressure

A

S*

Supply

Demand '

Demand

slide61
Forex Sale

Supply

  • Central Bank does Forex Sale maintaining Exchange Rate Stability
  • Shrinking money supply and higher domestic interest rates

S

A

S*

B

Demand

Supply'

Demand '

slide62
Excess Supply of Foreign Currency

S

1. Domestic Currency Faces Appreciation

S*

A

Supply

Demand

slide63
Forex Purchase
  • Central Bank does Forex Purchase maintaining Exchange Rate Stability
  • Growing money supply and lower domestic interest rates

S

B

S*

Supply'

A

Demand '

Supply

Demand

iron triangle of international finance
Iron Triangle of International Finance

Monetary Policy that Controls The Interest Rate

Open to International Capital Flows

Fixed Exchange Rates

Pick 2 items from this menu

uncovered interest parity
Uncovered Interest Parity
  • Bloomberg News Download
learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes
  • Students should be able to:
  • Use the Loanable Funds model to analyze the effects of external events on savings, investment, and real interest rates in capital markets and;
  • Compare capital markets in globalized economies with those in closed economies.
  • Use the money supply and demand model of money markets to examine the effect of changes in the economy on money market rates and;
learning outcomes pt 2
Learning Outcomes Pt. 2
  • Use the Supply-Demand model of the forex model to explain:
    • the effect of international trade conditions on the exchange rate.
    • the impact of interest rates and other financial market conditions on exchange rates.
    • Government policy efforts to stabilize the exchange rate.
discussion question
Discussion Question
  • In the past 3 years, the US dollar has been weak against a number of currencies including the British pound, Euro, Australian dollar, etc.
    • Discuss what types of firms in a country might benefit from a strong currency and what types will benefit from a weak country. What aspects of a firm's balance sheets and income statements can you imagine might be affected?
    • Use the exchange rate model/money market model to help understand what would happen to the domestic economy if the government decided to weaken the currency. Which types of firms might benefit and which would lose.
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