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Effects of the Union, 1707-1740. Economic Political Social Religious Jacobite Opposition . ECONOMIC EFFECTS. In the years immediately after 1707, the economic disadvantages severely outweighed the advantages. Only by 1740 were some benefits becoming apparent.

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effects of the union 1707 1740

Effects of the Union, 1707-1740

Economic

Political

Social

Religious

Jacobite Opposition

economic effects
ECONOMIC EFFECTS
  • In the years immediately after 1707, the economic disadvantages severely outweighed the advantages. Only by 1740 were some benefits becoming apparent.
one economic effect of the union was smuggling
One economic effect of the union was SMUGGLING…
  • BECAUSE: the Union increased customs taxes to five times higher than they had been before 1707.
  • SO, to avoid these higher customs there was a rapid growth in smuggling.
  • INDEED, between 1715 and 1717 62% of all imported goods to Scotland were smuggled. E.G. ¼ of tobacco smuggled from America after 1707
  • This resulted in a lack of revenue for the government.
one effect of the union was riots
One effect of the union was riots…
  • BECAUSE of additional taxes.
  • For example, In 1725 there were riots in Shawfield in Glasgow when attempts were made to collect a Malt Tax.
  • The Porteous Riots in Edinburgh occurred following the execution of a smuggler. As living standards remained low in Scotland, smugglers were treated as heroes.
one effect of the union was initially scottish industries suffered
One effect of the union was INITIALLY SCOTTISH INDUSTRIES SUFFERED.
  • BECAUSE: They could not compete with English industries as only a small number of Scots engaged successfully with colonies.
  • FOR EXAMPLE: The wool industry was hard hit. Exports of wool were banned and the Scottish wool industry could not compete with the English which supplied cheaper and better quality wool.
  • The linen industry was also badly damaged by a 1711 increase in export duties.
  • A tax was out on salt exports in 1711 (impacted the fish curing industry) which caused riots.
  • In May 1713 a Malt Tax was introduced (increased cost of alcohol). This actually broke the terms of the Treaty of Union and led to demands by some in Scotland to end the Union. This broke Article XIII of Union – led to attempts to dissolve the Union in the House of Lords
  • Brewing, paper-making, east coast fishing, shoe making and candle making were some of the other industries badly affected.
one effect of the union was some small economic benefits closer to 1740
One effect of the union was SOME SMALL ECONOMIC BENEFITS CLOSER TO 1740.
  • Agricultural techniques improved after Scottish landlords observed methods used successfully in England. The Honourable Society of Improvers was formed in 1723.
  • 1727: RBS founded. Initial capital was raised from the Equivalent payments
  • Board of Trusties for the Encouragement of Fisheries and Manufacturers was established with an aim of encouraging Scottish industries e.g. improve the practices and quality control in the linen industry. Benefits were seen by 1740.
one effect of the union was trade
One effect of the union was TRADE…
  • Positive BECAUSE: Merchant shipping benefited, particularly trade with Baltic and Caribbean.
  • For example: By 1725, Glasgow had doubled its import of tobacco but it wouldn’t be until the 1740s before the real boom developed.
  • Trade with France was lost.
one effect of the union was the scottish court of exchequer
One effect of the union was the SCOTTISH COURT OF EXCHEQUER…
  • BECAUSE it was responsible for customs and excise in Scotland and even though it followed the English model and had an English judge in charge it did give Scots experience of laws relating to trade and business.
one effect of the union was the abolition of the privy council
One effect of the union was THE ABOLITION OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL
  • Abolished in February 1708, many Scots believed this was unfair on Scotland BECAUSE:
  • The Privy Council was a body that advised the King. Its main role was administering the law, regulating trade and shipping, granting licences to travel and administering oaths of allegiance.
one effect of the union was the lengthy time period england took to pay the equivalent
One effect of the union was the lengthy time period England took to pay the Equivalent.
  • This effected Scotland BECAUSE this sum of money was meant to ease Scotland’s new tax burden following the union.
one effect of the union was the changes in scottish law
One effect of the Union was the changes in Scottish law.
  • Even though the Articles of the Union stated that Scotland could keep its own laws, they could be altered in the future by the British government.
  • In 1708, the English Law of Treason was extended into Scotland after a Jacobite rebellion.
  • Many Scots thought this was overstepping the mark.
  • 1712 – House of Lords became court of appeal for Scottish cases
one effect of the union was disappointment amongst the scottish elite
One effect of the union was disappointment amongst the Scottish elite…
  • BECAUSE the union did not bring the personal benefits that many had hoped for.
  • For example: the Duke of of Hamilton had supported the passing of the Treaty of Union. One of his rewards for doing so was a British peerage, the Duke of Brandon.
  • However, he was not granted the right to sit in the House of Lords. Therefore, his peerage was little more than a title and a disappointment to him.
  • For example: Scottish MPs were laughed at and ridiculed at Westminster in the British Parliament. Their accent and poverty marked Scottish MPs out.
  • The extent of the Scottish nobility’s disillusionment with Union is apparent in the failed vote to dissolve the union in the House of Lords 1713
social effects
SOCIAL EFFECTS
  • Loss of Scottish identity.
one effect of the union was the scottish fear of losing their identity
One effect of the union was the Scottish fear of losing their identity…
  • BECAUSE: The Scottish crown jewels were locked away and forgotten about.
  • The English Great Seal was used for official British documents.
  • Some historians (e.g. Macinnes) argue that Scotland was largely ignored after the union unless there was a sign of trouble.
one effect of the union was the scottish attempt to keep their identity
One effect of the union was the Scottish attempt to keep their identity.
  • For example: new Scottish newspaper was (re)formed called the “Caledonian Mercury”. It was seen as a way of having something that was just Scottish.
  • Also, In 1739 Scotland published the first edition of the “Scots Magazine” as a way of writing about Scottish history, culture and current affairs. It was the world’s first magazine.
one religious effect of the union was the 1712 toleration act
One religious effect of the union was the 1712 Toleration Act…
  • BECAUSE: It led to many Presbyterians becoming very disappointed with the union.
  • This act meant that Episcopalianism was to be tolerated in Scotland.
  • Many Presbyterians were outraged because they thought this went against the Act of Security and allowed Episcopalianism to flourish.
one religious effect of the union was the 1712 patronage act
One religious effect of the Union was the 1712 Patronage Act…
  • This angered many Presbyterians because they thought this went against the Act of Security because:
  • This allowed Scottish landowners to appoint ministers in their parish. Presbyterianism said ministers should be chosen by the congregation.
one religious effect of the union was the yule vacance act 1712
One religious effect of the Union was the Yule Vacance Act, 1712.
  • Again, this made many Presbyterians angry with the union BECAUSE:
  • This act granted a holiday period to the Scottish law courts at Christmas – Presbyterians saw this as a pagan Celtic and Catholic festival.
slide21
One religious effect of the Union was the British government’s decision about which company was to publish the bible…
  • BECAUSE the company chosen employed Catholics and Episcopalians. This outraged Presbyterians.
the jacobite reaction
THE JACOBITE REACTION

What did they want?

  • The restoration of the Stuart monarchy.
  • The Union stated that the Hanoverian succession must be accepted in Scotland. This put an end to any chances of a Stuart becoming monarch again after Anne died.
the jacobite reaction1
THE JACOBITE REACTION

Who supported the Jacobites?

  • Some people who opposed the Union were prepared to support the Jacobites because they wanted to destroy the Union.
  • Lots of Jacobite songs appeared at this time which encouraged supporters.
  • Many Scots in the north east and parts of the Highlands supported the cause.
  • Some politicians also supported them just in case the Stuarts got back into power – they wanted to make sure their own political careers were safe in this event!
the jacobite reaction2
THE JACOBITE REACTION

Who did not Support the Jacobites?

  • Some Presbyterians. Jacobitism was inextricably linked to Catholicism for them.
  • Most Scots in the lowlands did not support the Jacobites.
  • Nonetheless, they emerged as leaders of national sentiment.
the jacobite reaction3
THE JACOBITE REACTION

1708 Attempted Rebellion

A French sponsored landing of troops was attempted:

  • In 1708 the French helped James VII and II’s son James, since known as the Old Pretender, to sail to Scotland to reclaim his throne.
  • However, the British Royal Navy and bad weather meant that the invading force could not land their ship.
  • They turned back for France.
the jacobite reaction4
THE JACOBITE REACTION

One effect of the union was the Jacobite publication of literature highlighting Scotland’s identity.

  • For example, Robert Freebairn published works which glorified Scotland’s past, its exploits and celebrated the House of Stuart.
  • Also, Jacobite fiddle tunes and songs contributed to popular support.
one effect of the union was a growth in support for the jacobites
One effect of the union was a growth in support for the Jacobites…
  • BECAUSE: It has been argued by historians that the areas of strongest Jacobite support were those that were suffering economically, especially as a result of the problems facing the linen industry post union.
1715 rebellion
1715 Rebellion
  • When George of Hanover became king in 1714, unrest grew in Scotland.
  • The Earl of Mar, who was now opposed to the Union having previously supported it (he had lost his office of secretary of state when George became king), organised a gathering of the clans in support of the Jacobite cause in Braemar.
  • Mar was hoping for French support.
an effect of the union was the growth in strength of the jacobite rebellion
An effect of the Union was the growth in strength of the Jacobite rebellion
  • BECAUSE: The British government did not have funds to have a strong military presence in Scotland.
  • There was also a weapons shortage which made it difficult to arm their supporting lowland Scottish soldiers.
  • British govt. therefore unable to prevent military uprising.
an effect of the union was the growth in strength of the jacobite rebellion1
An effect of the Union was the growth in strength of the Jacobite rebellion
  • BECAUSE: areas of most economic suffering due to the union turned their support towards the Jacobites e.g. North East.
  • Episcopalian church helped spread the Jacobite message and propaganda.
slide32
BUT:
  • The French changed their foreign policy….
  • War of Spanish Succession ended with British victory.
  • So, the French were keen to stay on Britain’s good side and WITHDREW their support from the Jacobites.
  • Alliance between France and Britain finalised in 1717.
battle of sheriffmuir nov 1715
Battle of Sheriffmuir, Nov. 1715
  • This took place in November 1715.
  • The Jacobites, under the Earl of Mar met the Government forces led by General John Campbell, the Duke of Argyll.
  • The Jacobites withdrew from the fight, but both sides claimed it a victory for them!
  • James arrived at Peterhead shortly after.
  • He left again in February 1716 when it became clear that the rebellion was running out of steam.
aftermath of rebellion
Aftermath of Rebellion
  • Highlanders were no longer allowed to hold weapons under the 1716 Disarming Act.
  • A further uprising in 1719 failed.
  • Support for the Jacobite cause declined as people began to live with the union and realise that it had benefits too.
  • The 1745 uprising led by Bonnie Prince Charlie ended with defeat at Culloden Moor.
activity
ACTIVITY
  • Go through the explanations in your table and identify those which are
    • Positive effects (benefits)
    • Negative effects