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Interest Grabber. Section 2-1. What’s the Matter?. All of the materials around you are made up of matter. You are made up of matter, as are the chair you sit on and the air you breathe. 1. Give an example of solid matter. 2. Give an example of liquid matter.

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what s the matter

Interest Grabber

Section 2-1

What’s the Matter?
  • All of the materials around you are made up of matter. You are made up of matter, as are the chair you sit on and the air you breathe.
  • 1. Give an example of solid matter.
  • 2. Give an example of liquid matter.
  • 3. Give an example of gaseous matter.
  • 4. Is all matter visible?
  • 5. Does all matter take up space?
slide2

Section Outline

Section 2-1

  • 2–1 The Nature of Matter

A. Atoms

B. Elements and Isotopes

1. Isotopes

2. Radioactive Isotopes

C. Chemical Compounds

D. Chemical Bonds

1. Ionic Bonds

2. Covalent Bonds

3. Van der Waals Forces

slide3

An Element in the Periodic Table

Section 2-1

6

C

Carbon

12.011

slide4

Figure 2-2 Isotopes of Carbon

Section 2-1

Nonradioactive carbon-12

Nonradioactive carbon-13

Radioactive carbon-14

6 electrons

6 protons

6 neutrons

6 electrons

6 protons

7 neutrons

6 electrons

6 protons

8 neutrons

slide5

Figure 2-3 Ionic Bonding

Section 2-1

Sodium atom (Na)

Chlorine atom (Cl)

Sodium ion (Na+)

Chloride ion (Cl-)

Transfer

of electron

Protons +11

Electrons -11

Charge 0

Protons +17

Electrons -17

Charge 0

Protons +11

Electrons -10

Charge +1

Protons +17

Electrons -18

Charge -1

slide6

Figure 2-3 Ionic Bonding

Section 2-1

Sodium atom (Na)

Chlorine atom (Cl)

Sodium ion (Na+)

Chloride ion (Cl-)

Transfer

of electron

Protons +11

Electrons -11

Charge 0

Protons +17

Electrons -17

Charge 0

Protons +11

Electrons -10

Charge +1

Protons +17

Electrons -18

Charge -1

water water everywhere

Interest Grabber

Section 2-2

Water, Water Everywhere
  • If you have ever seen a photograph of Earth from space, you know that much of the planet is covered by water. Water makes life on Earth possible. If life as we know it exists on some other planet, water must be present to support that life.
slide8

Interest Grabber continued

Section 2-2

  • 1. Working with a partner, make a list of ten things that have water
  • in them.
  • 2. Exchange your list for the list of another pair of students. Did your lists contain some of the same things? Did anything on the other list surprise you?
  • 3. Did either list contain any living things?
slide9

Section Outline

Section 2-2

  • 2–2 Properties of Water

A. The Water Molecule

1. Polarity

2. Hydrogen Bonds

B. Solutions and Suspensions

1. Solutions

2. Suspensions

C. Acids, Bases, and pH

1. The pH Scale

2. Acids

3. Bases

4. Buffers

slide10

pH Scale

Section 2-2

Oven cleaner

Bleach

Ammonia solution

Increasingly Basic

Soap

Sea water

Human blood

Neutral

Pure water

Milk

Normal

rainfall

Acid rain

Increasingly Acidic

Tomato

juice

Lemon juice

Stomach acid

slide11

Figure 2-9 NaCI Solution

Section 2-2

Cl-

Cl-

Na+

Na+

Water

Water

slide12

Figure 2-9 NaCI Solution

Section 2-2

Cl-

Cl-

Na+

Na+

Water

Water

life s backbone

Interest Grabber

Section 2-3

Life’s Backbone
  • Most of the compounds that make up living things contain carbon. In fact, carbon makes up the basic structure, or “backbone,” of these compounds. Each atom of carbon has four electrons in its outer energy level, which makes it possible for each carbon atom to form four bonds with other atoms.
  • As a result, carbon atoms can form long chains. A huge number of different carbon compounds exist. Each compound has a different structure. For example, carbon chains can be straight or branching. Also, other kinds of atoms can be attached to the carbon chain.
slide14

Interest Grabber continued

Section 2-3

  • 1. On a sheet of paper, make a list of at least ten things that contain carbon.
  • 2. Working with a partner, review your list. If you think some things on your list contain only carbon, write “only carbon” next to them.
  • 3. If you know other elements that are in any items on your list, write those elements next to them.
slide15

Section Outline

Section 2-3

  • 2–3 Carbon Compounds

A. The Chemistry of Carbon

B. Macromolecules

C. Carbohydrates

D. Lipids

E. Nucleic Acids

F. Proteins

slide16

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Nucleic acids

Proteins

Sugars and

starches

Fats and oils

Nucleotides

Amino Acids

Carbon,

hydrogen,

oxygen

Carbon,

hydrogen,

oxygen

Carbon,

hydrogen,oxygen,

nitrogen,

Carbon,hydrogen,

oxygen, nitrogen,

phosphorus

Concept Map

Section 2-3

Carbon

Compounds

include

that consist of

that consist of

that consist of

that consist of

which contain

which contain

which contain

which contain

slide17

Figure 2-11 Carbon Compounds

Section 2-3

Methane

Acetylene

Butadiene

Benzene

Isooctane

slide18

Figure 2-13 A Starch

Section 2-3

Starch

Glucose

slide19

Figure 2-16 Amino Acids

Section 2-3

Amino group

Carboxyl group

General structure

Alanine

Serine

slide20

Figure 2-16 Amino Acids

Section 2-3

Amino group

Carboxyl group

General structure

Alanine

Serine

slide21

Figure 2-16 Amino Acids

Section 2-3

Amino group

Carboxyl group

General structure

Alanine

Serine

slide22

Figure 2-17 A Protein

Section 2-3

Amino

acids

matter and energy

Interest Grabber

Section 2-4

Matter and Energy
  • Have you ever sat around a campfire or watched flames flicker in a fireplace? The burning of wood is a chemical reaction—a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals. A chemical reaction always involves changes in chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds. The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction are called reactants. The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction are called products. As wood burns, molecules of cellulose are broken down and combine with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water vapor, and energy is released.
slide24

Interest Grabber continued

Section 2-4

  • 1. What are the reactants when wood burns?
  • 2. What are the products when wood burns?
  • 3. What kinds of energy are given off when wood burns?
  • 4. Wood doesn’t burn all by itself. What must you do to start a fire? What does this mean in terms of energy?
  • 5. Once the fire gets started, it keeps burning. Why don’t you need to keep restarting the fire?
slide25

Section Outline

Section 2-4

  • 2–4 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes

A. Chemical Reactions

B. Energy in Reactions

1. Energy Changes

2. Activation Energy

C. Enzymes

D. Enzyme Action

1. The Enzyme-Substrate Complex

2. Regulation of Enzyme Activity

slide26

Effect of Enzymes

Section 2-4

Reaction pathway

without enzyme

Activation energy

without enzyme

Activation

energy

with enzyme

Reactants

Reaction pathway

with enzyme

Products

slide27

Figure 2-19 Chemical Reactions

Section 2-4

Energy-Releasing Reaction

Energy-Absorbing Reaction

Activation

energy

Products

Activation energy

Reactants

Reactants

Products

slide28

Figure 2-19 Chemical Reactions

Section 2-4

Energy-Releasing Reaction

Energy-Absorbing Reaction

Activation

energy

Products

Activation energy

Reactants

Reactants

Products

slide29

Figure 2-21 Enzyme Action

Section 2-4

Enzyme

(hexokinase)

Glucose

Substrates

ADP

Products

Glucose-6-

phosphate

ATP

Products

are released

Active site

Substrates

bind to

enzyme

Enzyme-substrate

complex

Substrates

are converted

into products

slide30

Figure 2-21 Enzyme Action

Section 2-4

Enzyme

(hexokinase)

Glucose

Substrates

ADP

Products

Glucose-6-

phosphate

ATP

Products

are released

Active site

Substrates

bind to

enzyme

Enzyme-substrate

complex

Substrates

are converted

into products

slide31

Figure 2-21 Enzyme Action

Section 2-4

Enzyme

(hexokinase)

Glucose

Substrates

ADP

Products

Glucose-6-

phosphate

ATP

Products

are released

Active site

Substrates

bind to

enzyme

Enzyme-substrate

complex

Substrates

are converted

into products

slide32

Figure 2-21 Enzyme Action

Section 2-4

Enzyme

(hexokinase)

Glucose

Substrates

ADP

Products

Glucose-6-

phosphate

ATP

Products

are released

Active site

Substrates

bind to

enzyme

Enzyme-substrate

complex

Substrates

are converted

into products

video contents

Videos

Video Contents
  • Click a hyperlink to choose a video.
  • Atomic Structure
  • Energy Levels and Ionic Bonding
  • Covalent Bonding
  • Enzymatic Reactions
video 1

Video 1

Video 1

Atomic Structure

  • Click the image to play the video segment.
video 2

Video 2

Video 2

Energy Levels and Ionic Bonding

Click the image to play the video segment.

video 3

Video 3

Video 3

Covalent Bonding

Click the image to play the video segment.

video 4

Video 4

Video 4

Enzymatic Reactions

Click the image to play the video segment.

internet

Go Online

Internet
  • Career links on forensic scientists
  • Interactive test
  • Articles on organic chemistry
  • For links on properties of water, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-1022.
  • For links on enzymes, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-1024.