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Electrical Energy Crises Remedial Measures, Emphasizing the hydel power role. By Prof.Dr Engr.S.M.Bhutta. Energy the lifeline of economic development. Pakistan is the poorest of the poor as far as energy consumption for capital is concerned.

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electrical energy crises remedial measures emphasizing the hydel power role

Electrical Energy Crises Remedial Measures, Emphasizing the hydel power role

By

Prof.Dr Engr.S.M.Bhutta

slide2

Energy the lifeline of economic development.

  • Pakistan is the poorest of the poor as far as energy consumption for capital is concerned.
  • Per capita energy consumption, is one of the indicator of Industrial development and quality of life of a country.
  • Pakistan has 14 Million BTU’s as compared to 92 Million BTU’s of Malaysia and 34 Million BTU’s for China.
  • Per Capita electrical consumption per year of Pakistan is 470kWh, & of Malaysia is 2,708 & of Singapore is 6,775 kWh
slide10

Generation Expansion Plan (2007-2030)

As per generation expansion plan system needs additions of 32512 MW and 93831 MW by years 2012 and by 2025, respectively.

slide11

Hydropower Generation Expansion Plan

2597 MW by 2015 and 17474 MW by 2025.

slide17

Power Sector Installed Capacity of Pakistan

An overview of Installed Capacity of Power Sector of the country is as follows:

WAPDA Thermal - 6441 MW

Hydel - 6464 MW

Nuclear - 462 MW

IPPS (Thermal) - 6154 MW

Total - 19521 MW

Study of the utilization of various sources of power development in the country concludes as follows:

Gas - 35.7%

Oil - 28.7%

Coal - 0.3%

Nuclear - 2.3%

Hydel - 33%

slide18

Installed Hydropower Stations

Components of Hydropower System in Pakistan

slide21

WAPDA’s RESTRUCTURING

N T D C

( 1 )

POWER WING

GENCOs

( 4 )

DISCOs

( 9 )

GENERATION

TRANSMISSION

DISTRIBUTION

Thermal Power

Stations

Grid Station/Trans. Lines

Operation & Maintenance

Area Electricity Boards

slide22

Gas

5815 MW

(30%)

OVERVIEW OF PAKISTAN POWER SECTOR

GENERATION PATTERN

Hydel

Oil

6489 MW

6497 MW

(33%)

(34%)

Nuclear

452 MW

(2%)

Coal

Total 19403 MW

150 MW

(1%)

slide23

WAPDA’s RESTRUCTURING

N T D C

( 1 )

WAPDA HYDEL

(1)

POWER WING

GENCOs

( 4 )

DISCOs

( 9 )

GENERATION

TRANSMISSION

DISTRIBUTION

Thermal Power

Stations

Grid Station/Trans. Lines

Operation & Maintenance

Distribution Companies

slide24
There are several Barriers in the development of Hydel Power

1. Technology and Information Barriers.

2. Policy Barriers.

3. Regulatory Barriers.

4. Institutional Barriers.

5. Financial Barriers.

6. Interconnection Barriers.

7. Tariff.

8. Procedural impediments.

9. Risks

a. Hydrological Risks

b. Geological Risks.

c. Environment Risks.

d. Miscellaneous.

slide25
Technology and information Barriers.

We lack knowledge & information about the technology of hydel power.

Need for education of hydel power technology not only for the students & engineers but also for general public

Strategy to achieve five E’s

E----- Education

E----- Energy

E----- Employment

E----- Equity

E----- Enterprise

UET Taxila has taken a lead in starting the classes for post graduate students about Hydel Power to implement the most important “Es” of education in energy & for employment on equity basics for enterprises.

slide26

and Micro Hydel Plants

Oil, Gas and Coal

Renewable Energy resources

Suitable human resource development to fulfill the energy growth requirements

slide28

PAKISTAN’S HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL

Small Hydel

Swat & Chitral River

1290 MW

Jhelum River Basin

4528 MW

7249 MW

41816 MW

Indus River Basin

slide30

DIAMER BASHA DAM MULTI-PURPOSE PROJECT

  • (PROFILE OF PROJECT UNDER EXECUTION)
  • Project Location Chilas on Indus River 315 km upstream of Tarbela Dam,
  • Height of Dam 272 m
  • Length of Dam 990 m
  • Gross Storage 8.1 Million-acre feet (MAF)
  • Live Storage 6.4MAF
  • Total Installed Capacity 4,500MW
  • Total Number of Units 12, each of 375 MW
  • Power Houses 2 (2,250 MW each)
  • Average Generation 18,000 Gwh/ annum
  • Construction Period 2009-2017
  • Present Status
  • Feasibility Completed in 2007.
  • Construction to start by mid 2009.
slide31

KALABAGH DAM PROJECT

(Multi Purpose but Made Controversial)

NEED FOR KALABAGH DAM FOR IRRIGATION & ELECTRICTY

  • 35 million acres land of Pakistan is irrigated by canals and tube wells.
  • Canal with drawl increased from 67 to 105 MAF between the years 1947 and 1976 .
  • Storage depleted by 5MAF by 2006.
  • Situation of water shortage, threat of famine
  • Pakistan will have reached the stage of “acute water shortage”, where people fight for every drop of water.
slide32

NATIONAL LOSS IF KALABAGH DAM IS NOT BUILT

  • National food needs would be jeopardized as of population growth.
  • 28% loss of storage capacity of the on-line reservoirs due to sedimentation would result in shortage of committed irrigation supplies.
  • For implementation of Water Apportionment Accord 1991, new storages are essential. In its absence it would give rise in bitter inter-provincial disputes,
  • The Annual energy generated at Kalabagh would be equivalent to 20 million barrels of oil otherwise needed to produce thermal power.
slide33

Reservoir

Live storage 6.1 MAF

Retention level 915 ft SPD*

Minimum reservoir level 825 ft SPD*

Area at retention level 164 sq mile

Main Dam

Crest elevation 940 ft SPD*

Crest width 50 ft

Maximum height 260 ft

Length 4,375 ft

Installed Capacity 3600 MW

Estimated Cost about US$6.2 Billion

slide34

APPREHENSION OF NWFP

1. flooding of Peshawar Valley including Nowshera

®Backwater effect of Kalabagh Lake would end about 10 miles downstream of Nowshera.

2. Area of Mardan, Pabbi and Swabi plains would be adversely affected creating water logging and salinity.

® Lowest ground levels at Mardan, Pabbi and Swabi areas are 970, 960 and 1000 feet above MSL respectively, as compared to the maximum conservation level of 915 ft for Kalabagh operation pattern of reservoir cannot block the land drainage and cause water logging or salinity

slide35

4.Operation of Mardan SCARP would be adversely affected.

  • ®The invert levels of main drains of Mardan SCARP are higher than reservoir elevation of 915 feet and the back water level in Kabul River and Kalapani Khwar. These drains would keep on functioning without any obstruction.
  • 5.Fertile cultivable land would be submerged.
  • ®Total cultivable affected land under the reservoir is only 35,000 acres,(24,500 acres in Punjab 3,000 acres in NWFP).irrigated land would be only 3,000 acres (2,900 acres in Punjab and 100 acres in NWFP).
  • 6.Population Dislocation
  • ® total population to be relocated is 120320 of which 78170 shall be from Punjab and 42150 from NWFP.
  • Resettlement of Affected Population will be properly compensated
slide36

APPREHENSIONS OF SINDH

  • No surplus water to fill Kalabagh reservoir
  • ® Annual average of 35 MAF has escaped below Kotri to Sea.
  • ® Kalabagh reservoir will be filled up by only 6MAF, which will gradually be released to the provinces.
  • ® Indus River System Authority (IRSA) has studied and confirmed that sufficient water is available for further storage.
slide37

2. Anxiety the project would render Sindh into desert.

  • ® Dams don’t consume water! These only store water during flood season and make it available on crop demand basis
  • ® It estimated that after Kalabagh, the canal withdrawals for Sindh would further increase by about 2.25 MAF.
  • 3.Outlets would be used to divert water from the reservoir
  • ®The project design does not include any provision for diverting water from reservoir.
  • ® A telemetric system employing modern electronic technology has recently been installed at each barrage and other flow control points to monitor discharge in various canals commands, on real time basis under the auspices of Indus Water River System Authority (IRSA).
slide38

4.Cultivation in “Sailaba” areas would be effected

  • ® Flood peaks above 300,000 cusecs would still be coming after construction of Kalabagh Dam, without detriment to the present agricultural practices, while large floods would be effectively controlled. This would, in fact, be conducive to installation of permanent tube wells to provide perennial irrigation facility in rive rain areas. The local farmer can look forward to having two crops annually instead of the present one crop.
  • 5.Sea Water intrusion estuary would accentuate.
  • ® Data shows that sea water intrusion, seems to be at its maximum even now, and it is unlikely to be aggravated further by Kalabagh Dam.
slide39

BENEFITS & CHALLENGES OF HYDEL POWER DEVELOPMENT

  • Hydel Potential of 54,000MW to be harnessed to avoid load shedding
  • To reduce dependency on oil import
  • Hydel power a stimulator for the socio-economic growth
  • Highly reliable, cheap operation and maintenance charges are very low
  • Able to respond to rapidly changing loads without loss of efficiency
  • The plants have a long life so highly economical
  • No nuisance of smoke, exhaust gases, soot, as environment, friendly
  • Multipurpose to give additional advantages of irrigation
  • Optimal Utilization of Indus River for development of Hydropower Projects in cascade system
slide40

Technology and Information Barriers & Risks of Hydrology Geology etc

  • Strategy for five E’s, Education, Energy, Employment, Equity, Enterprise
  • Attractive Policy & incentives required
  • Upfront & Feed-in Tariff necessary
  • Hydrological studies on all streams, to have central data bank of hydrology
  • Action Plan with targets for faithful implementation
slide41

Need to simplify and standardized Environment Assessment

  • Institute for dissemination of technology, training and R&D recommended
  • Communication Infrastructure development up to the site is required
  • New approaches to financing, environmental and social issues, barriers and their mitigations, to enhance public acceptance, and to build consensus
  • Need for technology transfer and & local technology development
  • Targeted and compatible human resource development in line with energy generation profile
challenges in hydropower projects
Challenges in Hydropower Projects

More Capital intensive compared to thermal

Longer gestation and construction Period

More Construction Risks (inflation, cost overruns, delays, geological surprises, floods, extreme weather, socio-political)

Higher Tariff in the initial years

No “off-the-shelf” or standard machines similar to thermal plants

Very site specific. Usually a number of options for developing each site

High percentage of civil works (70-75%) - difficult to estimate end costs

Operational Risks (hydrological risk, multiple uses, future developments/diversions)

Environmental & resettlement issues

Institutional set up at provincial level

challenges in hydropower projects43
Challenges in Hydropower Projects

Generally located in remote area, lack of basic infrastructure (access roads, tunnels, electricity, telephone, colony, potable water, manpower)

Dedicated and expensive delivery infrastructure required

Extra thermal capacity for backup in low water season

Hydel Generation varies with availability of water & head

Limited International experience in Private Hydropower Projects

Specific Tariff & Security Documents issues

Project Agreements (IA, PPA) are different and complex

Clearances from the Provinces, Water Use Agreement etc.