Pennsylvania Career Guide www.dli.state.pa.us
The Importance of Finding the Right Job Jobs are constantly changing. The types of jobs available and the skills needed to fill them have changed considerably over time. The following information shows current occupational trends and predictions for the future. Knowing these trends is necessary to make smart decisions about the career you wish to pursue.
Today: • On average, workers will change jobs about seven times during their careers. • Nearly 80 percent of all jobs require some sort of postsecondary training. • Manufacturing is becoming increasingly driven by advanced science and technology, and the industry has a growing need for a workforce with the right skills. • Employers in general are demanding specific skills and experience in addition to college or postsecondary schooling. • Additionally, employers often require training beyond high school – either through college or technical schools. • Skilled jobs requiring less than a bachelor’s degree comprise almost half of today’s job market. Tomorrow: • Advancement in technology will cause rapid and unpredictable changes in career demands. • High-tech workers will need to return to school to learn new skills. • Manufacturing will shift from mass production to flexible production. Workers will need an even wider range of skills than they do today. • The key to successfully landing jobs will be developing a wide selection of needed skills. • The worker who is prepared to engage in continuing education, both on and off the job, will have the economic advantage in the workplace. • Traditional skilled trades, such as auto mechanics, plumbers, electricians and dental hygienists will still be in demand.
So You want to Be a Star? • Broadcaster/Journalist - Whether they are broadcasting the game live, recording a highlights reel for television or discussing trade deadlines in the paper, sports reporters and broadcasters are the eyes and ears of the people. • Photojournalist - Uses a still or video camera to catch the action. • Coach/Umpire - Requires a broad knowledge of the sport to either teach or motivate players, or to observe and regulate the players’ actions. • Facilities Manager - Oversees the day-to-day operations of an arena or sporting venue. • Physical Therapist –Develops exercise programs to help recovery from injuries and to prevent future injuries. A license is required to practice this occupation. • Sports Statistician - Collects and analyzes sports data for individual games, seasons and careers. Sports announcers rely on statisticians for information. • Sports Turf Specialist - Tends to grass in stadiums, golf courses and tennis courts.
The Only Constant is Change • “Career Change through Lifelong Learning” • Careers evolve • Hit the books; surf the Net • Accomplishments matter • New skills keep you growing • Get out there and network! • Enthusiasm pays off • Sell yourself
Getting to Know Yourself Assess Your Interests • Please refer to pages 5 & 6 in your booklet
Have a Career in Mind? Try It Out First
Pennsylvania’s Targeted Industry Clusters and High Priority Occupations
Spotlight on Green Jobs What is a green Job? • To better understand what it means to be green, and to measure the state of the green economy now and in the future, Pennsylvania defines green jobs as: • Jobs that employ workers in producing or offering products or services that: • Promote energy efficiency; • Contribute to the sustainable use of resources; • prevent pollution • Clean up the environment; and • Promote the reduction of harmful emissions.
Energy EfficiencySample Employers: civil engineering consultants and building construction contractors Sample Occupations: carpenters, civil engineers, energy auditors, energy engineers and construction laborers Employment: This sector accounts for 59 percent of all green employment Renewable Energy Sample Employers: wind turbine builders and electric utility companies Sample Occupations: electrical power-line installers & repairers, geothermal installers, industrial machinery mechanics, renewable energy technicians and solar panel installers Employment:This sector accounts for 7 percent of all green employment
Clean Transportation Sample Employers: aircraft manufacturers and transportation management companies Sample Occupations: industrial engineering technicians and machinists Employment:This sector accounts for 8 percent of all green employment Pollution Prevention & Sample Employers: scientific research Environmental Cleanup facilities and water treatment plant builders Sample Occupations: chemists, industrial engineers, refuse & recyclable material collectors, water & liquid waste treatment operators Employment: This sector accounts for 18 percent of all green employment Agriculture & Resource Sample Employers: corn farms and energy Conservation consulting companies Sample Occupations: agricultural engineers, food science technicians, and farm management advisors Employment: This sector accounts for 8 percent of all green employment
Spotlight on Allied Health The occupations listed to the right are considered in-demand by the Pennsylvania Center for Health Careers’ Allied Health Workgroup:
Using the Occupational Data Bank (ODB) Information is provided for over 300 occupations, which employ almost 90 percent of Pennsylvania’s workforce. (Pg. 16) To access similar data for other occupations or a specific area, please contact the Center for Workforce Information & Analysis (CWIA) at 1-877-4WF-DATA or by email at email@example.com For more comprehensive information, check out the PA Occupational Outlook Handbook at www.paworkstats.pa.us click on Products.
Your Quick Reference Guide Background on the information provided in the ODB: 1. Occupation – Provides a descriptive title of the occupation. 6. STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) – Occupation is a special STEM priority occupation requiring substantial Mathematics or Science preparation. These occupations are essential to maintaining the economy, quality of life, national security and technological superiority of our country. 4. Wage Data – Information is from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey. Wages are 2009 annual figures and represent the entry-level and average wage in Pennsylvania and the average wage in the nation. 5. High Priority Occupations – Occupation is designated as a statewide High Priority Occupation (HPO) – one which is in demand by employers, has high skill requirements and offers a family-sustaining wage. 2. Interest Code – Links the occupation to the categories established in the interest assessment test on pages 5 and 6. 7. Green – Occupation is designated as a green job in Pennsylvania. These occupations promote energy efficiency, contribute to the sustainable use of resources, prevent pollution, clean up the environment and promote the reduction of harmful emissions. Employment Outlook – Information is based on occupational projections produced by the Pennsylvania Department of Labor & Industry, Center for Workforce Information & Analysis. Projected employment is the number of jobs expected in the year 2018. Openings per year are the number of job openings per year, due to growth and replacement needs caused by exiting workers. The tables are sorted based on annual openings, from most to fewest within each cluster. (Pg. 17 in your booklet)
Pennsylvania Conservation Corps • How to Sign up: • Visit your local PA CareerLink office and tell the folks there that you’re interested in the PCC. • If there are no projects in your area, and you would be willing to work in another part of the state, contact the PCC office for information on projects in other areas. Pennsylvania Conservation Corps 651 Boas Street, Room 1304 Harrisburg, PA 17121-0750 888.577.4722 www.dli.state.pa.us/pcc Auxiliary aids and services are available upon request to individuals with disabilities. Equal Opportunity Employer/Program
Other Career Options Working for State Government • The State Civil Service Commission (SCSC) recruits employees for Civil Service positions with the state or local governments. You can find Civil Service applications and announcements online at www.scsc.state.pa.us • The Bureau of State Employment (BSE) handles non-Civil Service positions in the state government, most of which do not require testing. For more information, visit www.pa.gov and click on the “work” link, or contact BSE at 717.787.5703. (Pg. 41 in your book)
Starting Your Own Business • Is there a market for my product? • What expenses will I have (including licensing, taxes, equipment, inventory, rent, advertising, utilities and insurance)? • How will I find customers? • What is the best way to advertise and how much will it cost? • Who is my competition? How loyal are their customers? How much do they charge and can I afford to charge less to win customers? Business? • Where can I get assistance with any questions I might have about running a business (including accounting, legal or insurance advice)? • Do I have the money for start-up costs, or will I have to rely on outside investments or bank loans? Resources: www.newpa.com or call 866-GO-NEW-PA Small Business Administration at www.sba.gov
Getting There Alternative Education/Career Paths Career and Technical Education Pennsylvania Skills Certificate CTE Programs of Study Registered Apprenticeship (Pgs. 43 & 44 in your booklet)
Additional Career Resources: To learn more about the different careers in Pennsylvania visit the PA Career Zone www.pacareerzone.com PA Higher Education Assistance Agency provides assistance for individuals interested in higher education. www.pheaa.org To learn more about the careers available in the PA Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) field, visit the following site. www.pasteminitiative.org The Pennsylvania Career Education & Work Standards site provides resources, references, crosswalks and other tools to assist elementary, middle and high school teachers and administrators in implementing academic standards. www.pacareerstandards.com
Registered Apprenticeship • Learn and earn: You will be paid while you develop your skill. • Increase in wages: The pay progresses as you do. • On-the-job training: A mentor will work with you in a real-world setting. • Related classroom instruction: Class work provides the knowledge to supplement the training experience. • Completion certificate: Employers everywhere recognize a journey worker’s license. Top Apprenticeships for Pennsylvania (Pg. 44 in your booklet)
Military Training and Careers in the Armed Forces (Pg. 45 in your booklet)
The Costs of College (Pg. 48 in your booklet)
The To-Do list is divided into two sections: What to do before your senior year begins: Month-by-month planner This section of the Career Guide offers you some help by giving you a general To-Do list to follow. (Pgs. 49 – 52 in your booklet)
Job Resources PA Career Link You can visit PA CareerLink online at: www.pacareerlink.state.pa.us (Pg. 53 in your booklet for listing of services)
Networking • Make a list of friends, relatives, teachers or anyone with whom you may have a common thread. They might know of employers looking for your particular skills. Ask for tips, leads and suggestions to help you reach your goals. Take advantage of your “connections” and contact those employers or leads. Even if you don’t get the job with them now, they might remember you later or even point you in a better direction. • Attending a career fair is a particularly effective way to network. You’ll have the opportunity to meet with representatives from multiple industries, and to submit your resume to several potential employers. • Make an effort to learn about local employers and any you contact. Find out who’s hiring, what type of work they do and who to contact about job openings. One of the best ways to go about this would be to check out the company’s website. • Some good ways to start networking would be to attend career fairs, join a student or professional organization or network online. Don’t be afraid to approach new people. More times than not you’ll find a way you can help the person, or learn they are able to help you out.
YOUR RESUME Developing Your Resume: (Pg. 56 in your booklet)
Posting Your Resume Online (Pg. 58 in your booklet) Convey Your Abilities in Your Cover Letter (Pg. 59 in your booklet)
The Job Application Creating a Positive Image • DEVELOP A PERSONAL FACT SHEET • PREPARE IN ADVANCE (Pg. 60 in your booklet)
The Interview Before The Interview (Pg. 62) During the Interview (Pg. 62) After The Interview (Pg. 63)