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Converting Red Liquor, Pulp, and Sludge to Ethanol PowerPoint Presentation
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Converting Red Liquor, Pulp, and Sludge to Ethanol

Converting Red Liquor, Pulp, and Sludge to Ethanol

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Converting Red Liquor, Pulp, and Sludge to Ethanol

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  1. Converting Red Liquor, Pulp, and Sludge to Ethanol Spring 2009 Design Class Paper Science & Engineering 487 College of Forest Resource University of Washington 11 June 2009

  2. Agenda • Background • Red Liquor to Ethanol Production • Process Overview • Process Detail • Mill Integration • Process Economics • Environmental and Safety • Conclusions and Recommendations • Pulp to Ethanol Production • Sludge to Ethanol Production • Process Comparison • Conclusion

  3. Background • Ethanol – • Production Benefits: • Environmental • Economical • Efficient • Project Objective: • Integrate the production of ethanol into the KC Everett mill. • Group Objectives: • Production of ethanol from Red Liquor, Pulp, and Sludge http://i.treehugger.com/files/ch3ch2oh.jpg

  4. Fermentation Options Three Fermentation Microorganisms • Escherichia coli • Genetically engineered strain KO11 • Yield 0.44 g ethanol /g sugar • Metabolize 5 and 6 carbon sugars Zymomonasmobilis • Genetically Engineered Strain ZM4:ZB5 • More tolerant of acetic acid • Yield 0.47g ethanol/g sugar • Metabolize 5 and 6 carbon sugars Saccharomycescerevisia • Strain 424A(LNH-ST) • Yield 0.41 g ethanol/g sugar • Metabolize only 6C sugars • Proven performance with red liquor

  5. Red Liquor to Ethanol Chris Ardales, Colynn Boyd, Sabrina Burkhardt, Danielle Greenwood Paper Science & Engineering 487 College of Forest Resource University of Washington

  6. Process Overview • Assumptions • Neglect Inhibitors • 86% Fermentable Hexoses converted • 77% Fermentable Pentoses converted • Mill is capable of handling increased steam production • Critical Unit Operations • Raise pH with Ammonium Hydroxide prior to fermenting • Lower Temperature prior to fermenting • Use of Zymomonas mobilis as fermenting agent • Nutrients: corn steep, diammonium phosphate • SSL taken from 5th MEE, remaining liquor returns to 1st MEE • Flow Diagram Follows:

  7. Process Detail - WinGEMS

  8. Process Detail - WinGEMS

  9. Process Detail - WinGEMS

  10. Process Detail – Inputs to Process

  11. Process Design Fermenter Outflow to Beer Column

  12. Process Design Beer column outflow to evaporator stage 1

  13. Process Design • Beer column flow to rectifier and sieve Outflow from rectifier and sieve

  14. Process Detail – Results from WinGEMS Ethanol Production (WinGEMS Simulation) Ethanol Production (calculated)

  15. Process Design Steam Production from Red Liquor • 31%-53% reduction in steam from red liquor • Distillation requires 33 KPPH • Other fuels must be burned to makeup the steam requirement • Wingems simulation is optimistic Change in power production from WINGEMS

  16. Process Economics • Estimated based on NREL corn ethanol process • Exclude non-applicable operations • 2008$ using ppi • Installation factors, cost relationships used by NREL • Scaled based on production level

  17. Process Economics • Equivalent annual worth values • 20 year projection, 20% rate of return • Estimated based on NREL corn ethanol process • Chemicals vary from NREL process • Fixed costs based on production as in NREL

  18. Process Economics • Natural gas cost: $4/MM Btu

  19. Profitability • 20 year projection (pre-tax) • Ethanol selling price of $1.50/gal • Ethanol production of 7.1 MM gal/yr • Desired rate of return at 20% Net Present Value = $17.3 MM Break Even Ethanol Price: $1.06/gal

  20. Environmental and Safety • Displacement of Carbon released from gasoline • Calculated using guide lines from The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  21. Environmental and Safety Money in CO2 ? European Union • Results in an additional earning of 1.6Million dollars/year at $35/ton

  22. Environmental and Safety • Storage • Tank labeling • Materials resistant to ethanol corrosion • Unplated and Stainless Steel • Black Iron • Bronze • Nonmetallic Thermoset Reinforced Fiberglass • Thermo Plastic Piping • Neoprene Rubber • Nitrile • Teflon

  23. Environmental and Safety • Odor Control • Water Scrubber • Off fermentation and any vents that would contain Ethanol • Majority of the CO2 and 0.2% of the ethanol is vented • Contains 83.7% CO2, 12% ethanol, 4% water • Effluent is fed to the first distillation column • Over 99% of the ethanol to scrubber is recovered

  24. Recommendations • Further testing on Z. Mobilis • Genetically engineered bacteria my not hold up in SSL • New strains could be more effective • Consider yeast • Proven to work well with 6 carbon sugars • Will lose the fermentation of 5 carbon sugars • Rework analysis for 6 carbon sugars alone

  25. Conclusions • Ethanol production = 7.1 MM gal/yr • Net Present Value = $17.3 MM • Assuming mill can handle increase in steam demand • Z. mobilis yield is accurate and is hardy enough for SSL