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  1. HUMAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICTS - Althoff LEC-07 Ch 7-13 Field Approaches to Control Part - I

  2. Four Basic Approaches to ADC efforts from a Field Implementation Standpoint 1 2 3 4 In some situations, a _________________ of these approaches is necessary to effectively resolve the problem

  3. HABITAT MANAGEMENT - Overview • Often a reasonable approach for a ______________ solution • Often more practical in urban/suburban settings than rural areas. Property owner’s parcel is usually smaller and easier to modify in terms of habitat structure. Sometimes, “problem species” gets shuffled to some other part of the neighborhood. • Like landscaping for wildlife (i.e., planting species to attract), one can avoid plants that are appealing from a food or nesting standpoint

  4. HABITAT MANAGEMENT - Overview • Example of small-scale habitat management: Be selective about _______________. A) avoid deer favorites—even during low temps and snowy conditions B) substitute one tree/shrub species for another. Hawthorns are seldom browsed on by deer… so better choice than a dwarf or semi-dwarf apple tree C) seek county extension agent advice…extension agents often get the bulk of calls about “what to do” for this type of problem

  5. Known“Deer Favorites” • Phlox • Plums • Lilies • Redbud • Rhododendrons • Hybrid tea rose • Tulips • Winged euonymus • Wintercreeper • Yews • Daylilies • Apples • Arborvitaes • European mountain ash • Asters • Evergreen azaleas • Cherries • Clematis • Fraser and balsam firs • Hostas • English ivy • Norway maple

  6. HABITAT MANAGEMENT - Overview • Example of large-scale habitat management: Be selective about ______________ type planting. A) avoid varieties with lighter husk B) sometimes there is a tread-off….the heavier husk varieties have lower yields C) heavier husk varieties deter blackbirds better • Example of large-scale habitat management: Be selective on ___________ to reduce deer damage A) square and slightly less-than-square shapes have less edge, long linear fields. B) avoid “convoluted” edges

  7. HUSBANDRY PRACTICES- Overview • Most producers are willing to consider recommendations in husbandry practices if they can see in the long run a reduction or elimination of losses • Practicality depends on: a) b) c) • Example: sheep husbandry practices in OH typically different than in western states with farms/ranches smaller. May be more practical to shed ewes during lambing period during the night for a 100-head operation vs. a 1, 000 head one. Coyotes less likely to approach buildings

  8. HUSBANDRY PRACTICES- Overview • Economics often dictates where a producer should “look” to reduce losses. Sometimes other problems—non-wildlife ones—result in substantially higher losses than those sustained from predators. • Example (see next slides & handout for details): far more cattle succumb to respiratory problems than to predators. In fact, in 2010 predator losses where only the 9th highest loss category for cattle operators in the United States. Besides respiratory problems, digestive problems, weather-related, calving problems, and other non-predator losses were reported to have created greater economic losses.

  9. Cattle Losses 2005 vs. 2010 3,773,000 head 3,861,000 head NP Down 2.3% NP P = Predator NP = Non-predator 190,000 head P P 219,000 head Up 15% Source: USDA Report 12 May 2011 40,000 surveyed, 78% (31,200) of forms returned were usuable

  10. USDA 2010 Year Data – Losses of Cattle & Calves(arrows indicated substantial increase or decrease vs. 2005) Predators Non-Predators • Coyote 116,700 • Dogs 21,800 • Mt. Lion & 18,900 Bobcat Lynx • Vultures 11,900 • Wolves 8,100 • Bears 2,800 • Other 12,400 • Unknown 27,300 • Respiratory 1,055,000 • Digestive 505,000 • Calving 494,000 • Weather 489,000 • Unk N-P 435,000 • Other N-P 301,600 • Other disease 179,500 • Lameness 140,000 • Mastitis 62,000 • Metabolic 59,800

  11. DEVICES & EQUIPMENT- Overview • Very long list of equipment/methods used to curb losses, repel, or remove animals • New equipment/methods are being developed and tested by wildlife professionals, private industry, and the public • Many approaches are species-specific…but many are not • Limitations of use include causing harm/death to humans, their pets, and their livestock.

  12. MAJOR CATEGORIES OF “EQUIPMENT”/”DEVICES- TYPE APPROACHES Lethal Non-lethal • Barriers • Excluders • Toxicants & Fumigants • Repellents • Scare Devices • Traps and Snares • Shooting • Guard Animals

  13. Barriers Types • Woven wire fence • Hi-tensile fence • Electric fence • Netting • Tree guards • Chimney covers • “Spiny” Strips • Monofilament Wires

  14. Woven Wire Fence Netting

  15. Hi-tensile fence Charger = energizer

  16. Electric Fence Charger = energizer

  17. 4-strands Fence Charger (energizer) ~ __ inches 4 ~ __ inches 3 ~ __ inches 2 ~ __ inches 1

  18. Bottom 2 strands will likely repel woodchucks and rabbits

  19. Electric Fence • single wire with • _________________as • attractant

  20. Tree Guards

  21. Chimney Covers Preventing entry by raccoons and chimney swifts

  22. Spiny Strips - Nixalite ® Preventing perching by birds: sparrows, starlings, mud swallows, black birds, pigeons, crows, seagulls and vultures

  23. Monofilament Wires for spacing see Conover Table 13.2 , page 313 protect Preventing entry by birds: sparrows, starlings, pigeons, seagulls, etc. Prevent access- by herons, bitterns, etc. to fish hatcheries/ponds

  24. Excluders • Bat excluders – “one-way” exits

  25. Toxicants & Fumigants Toxicants = substance used to poison a problem animal, typically through ____________ • Gas cartridges • Smoke candles • Poison peanuts/pellets • Starlicide • M-44s Fumigants = gas used to poison a nuisance animal as it ____________

  26. Gas cartridges produce ________________ gas that fills the burrow system. The carbon monoxide  induces a loss of consciousness in the animal

  27. Smoke Bombs produce ____________ smoke thatfills the burrow system, asphyxiates tunnel dwellers. Light, drop in burrow/hole, then plug opening

  28. Poison Peanuts/Pellets

  29. Starlicide Used to control starlings and blackbirds. DRC-1339 is registered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture APHIS Birds ingesting it typically take 1-3 days to die. Use in feedlots…mixed with livestock feed

  30. Avitrol …causes starlings and blackbirds to act erractically. That behavior frightens others. Intent is to expect only a few birds to get “sick” Use in corn and sunflower fields. Must re-bait with “treated” grain

  31. M-44 Ejects sodium cyanide when “tugged” on by predator. Device is spring-activated . Top wrapped with absorbent material—then coated with attractant Used only by ___________ Specifically for canids…death occurs 10 seconds to 2 minutes after injection

  32. Repellents • Sprays/Powders – odor repellents • Sprays/Powders – taste repellents • Sticky Compounds

  33. Deer repellents – commercial products Hinder Deer Out Deer Away Liquid fence

  34. “Catch all” Repellents – commercial products ? Deer Woodchuck Rabbit Porcupine etc, ? Shake Away …coyote, fox, or bobcat urine in granular/powder form

  35. Homemade remedies – deer repellents see handout for “recipes” • Ammonia • Human hair • Worn clothes • Predator urine • Tankage (putrified meat scraps) • Rotten eggs • Moth balls / Moth crystals • Hot pepper spray + liquid dish soap + 1 tsp. garlic powder • Blood meal • Deodorant Soap

  36. Goose Repellents Geese do not like taste…will not graze Contains grape extract = methyl anthranilate Spray on….must be “dry”

  37. Sticky Compounds Bird Tanglefoot 4 the Birds Bird Repellent Preventing perching by birds: sparrows, starlings, pigeons, etc.

  38. Scare Devices • Scare-away exploder • Pyrotechnics / Shell crackers • Hawkite • Balloons • Reflective tape • Crow-killer scare-away • Strobe lights and sirens

  39. Scare-away / Propane exploders / Pyrotechnics “noise” to disrupt/annoy birds, deer, coyote

  40. Hawkite Scare-away songbirds – protect fruit/berry crops…maybe effective for 2-5 acres per kite

  41. Balloons Scare-away songbirds – protect fruit/berry crop…some streamers

  42. Reflective tape Usually made of mylar Scare-away songbirds – protect fruit/berry crop…some streamers…maybe deer?

  43. Crow-killer Scare Away Animated model – owl with crow in its clutches

  44. Strobe Lights / Sirens scare away coyotes, birds, etc. Key is to vary pattern and timing of lights flashing, sirens going off