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Definition of Knowledge. To say that you know X means: you believe X to be true there is some reason or justification (warrant) for thinking that X is true X is, in fact, true Gettier problem: you could have a warranted true belief and still not know. E. Gettier (1927- ).

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definition of knowledge
Definition of Knowledge

To say that you know X means:

  • you believe X to be true
  • there is some reason or justification (warrant) for thinking that X is true
  • X is, in fact, true
    • Gettier problem: you could have a warranted true belief and still not know

E. Gettier (1927- )

theories of truth
Theories of Truth
  • Correspondence: truth is an objective relation between beliefs and extramental reality (i.e., facts)
    • Objection: we cannot access extramental reality
  • Coherence: a proposition or belief is true if it is coherent with other accepted beliefs
    • Objection: coherent systems of intersubjectively accepted beliefs could still be false
  • Pragmatic: if acting on a belief satisfies our expectations—that is, if it works—it is true
    • Objections: (a) justified beliefs are not necessarily true; (b) this make all truths relative; (c) beliefs are not true because they “work”; they work because they are true