Organic Chemistry Chapter 3 Part II. Addition to Alkenes - Markovnikov’s rule-. Nanoplasmonic Research Group. Reactions of Alkenes: Addition. Electrophile Literally ‘ ELECTRON ’ lovers: electron-POOR reagents Positive ions or electron-deficient species Nucleophile
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Addition to Alkenes
- Markovnikov’s rule-
Nanoplasmonic Research Group
The RULE says “The addition of a protic acid such as H-X to an alkene, the acid hydrogen (H) becomes attached to the carbon atom with the greatest number of hydrogens, and the halide (X) group becomes attached to the carbon with the fewest hydrogens”
The stability of Carbocation
(1) Hyperconjugation & (2) Induction
The Point is which carbocation is more stable !!
The transmission of charge through a chain of atoms in a molecule by electrostatic induction
How to Predict ?
Electrophile adds to alkene according to Markovnikov’s rule
Draw possible resonance structures and see how many structures come out
Selectivity may differ depending on the stability of each resonance structure
Initiation by a radical initiator: A radical is created from a non-radical precursor
Chain propagation: A radical reacts with a non-radical to produce a new radical species
Chain termination: Two radicals react with each other to create a non-radical species
Chain branching: see page 102 middle