Chapter 9. Organic Chemistry II. Alkanes. 1. The parent name is that of the longest continuous chain of C atoms. 2. An alkane minus one H atom is named as an alk yl group.
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Organic Chemistry II
1. The parent name is that of the longest continuous chain of C atoms.
2. An alkane minus one H atom is named as an alkyl group.
3. Indicate the locations where replacements are made. Number in the direction that gives the smaller numbers for the locations of the branches.
4. Use prefixes when there is more than one alkyl branches of the same kind & for other types of substituents.
5. Cyclic Alkanes — indicates by cyclo before the hydrocarbon name.
two Cl 's are on opposite side of the double bond
CH2=CH2 ethene(ethylene)CH3CH=CH2 propene
CH2=CHCH2CH3 1-buteneCH3CH=CHCH3 2-butene
2. In naming branched chain alkenes, 1) the longest continuous chain must contain the double bond; 2) the double bond is given the lowest number.
3. Polyenes (have several double bonds): use prefixes to denote the number of double bonds and number the longest continuous chain to locate them.
4. Cyclic Olefins: use prefix cyclo and number to locate double bonds or radicals on the ring.
CH≡CH ethyne(acetylene)CH3C≡CH2 propyne
CH≡CCH2CH3 1-butyneCH3C≡CCH3 2-butyne
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
CH CH(g) + HBr(g) CH2 CHBr(g)
Substitution CH4(g) + Cl2(g) CH3Cl(g) + HCl (g)
CH2 CHBr(g) + HBr(g) CH3CHBr2(g)
Reactions of Hydrocarbons
CH CH(g) + H2(g) CH2 CH2(g)
C2H6(g) CH2 CH2(g) + H2(g)
CH3Cl chloromethane (methyl chloride)
CH2Cl2 dichloromethane (methylene chloride)
CHCl3 trichloromethane (chloroform)
CCl4 tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride)
1, 2, 3 - propanetriol
glycerol or glycerine
Biological C6H12O6(aq) 2CH3CH2OH(aq) + 2CO2(g)
Commercial CH2=CH2(g) + H2O(g) CH3CH2OH(g)
Classification of Alcohols
Production of Ethanol
Metabolic Oxidation of Ethanol
CH3CH2OH CH3CHO + H2
CH3OH + HOCH3 CH3OCH3 + H2O