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Eight English teaching methods. Grammar translation Direct Audiolingual Community language teaching Silent way Suggestopedia Total physical response Natural approach. Before going to deep … what’s the difference between methodology and technique ?. Methodology

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  • Grammartranslation
  • Direct
  • Audiolingual
  • Communitylanguageteaching
  • Silentway
  • Suggestopedia
  • Total physical response
  • Natural approach.
before going to deep what s the difference between methodology and technique
Beforegoingtodeep…what’sthedifferencebetweenmethodology and technique?


The study of pedagogical practices in general (including related research).  Whatever considerations are involved in "how to teach" are methodological.


Any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or devices used in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives

grammar translation method

Where does it come from?

This method has been used to teach dead languages (latin or acient greek) because people who are learning them have no chance in developing the four skills, so they focus only on reading and grammar.

key features
Key features
  •   Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.
  • Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.
  •   Long elaborate explanations of grammar application.
  •   Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words.
  •   Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early.
  •   Little attention is paid to the content of texts.
  •   Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.
typical techniques
  • Translation of a Literary Passage
  • Reading Comprehension Questions
  • Antonyms/Synonyms
  • Cognates
  • Deductive Application of Rule
  • Fill-in-the-blanks
  • Memorization
  • Use Words in Sentences
  • Composition
direct method

Where does it come from?

Towards the end of the late 1800s, a revolution in language teaching philosophy took place that is seen by many as the beggining of modern foreign language teaching. 

Teachers, began to experiment with new ways of teaching language. 

key features1
Key features:
  • Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the target language.
  • Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught.
  • Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully traded progression.
  • Grammar is taught inductively.
  • New teaching points are taught through modeling and practice.
  • Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas.
  • Both speech and listening comprehension are taught.
  • Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized
typical techniques1
  •   Reading Aloud
  •   Question and Answer Exercise
  •   Student Self-Correction
  • Conversation Practice
  •   Fill-in-the-blank Exercise
  •   Dictation
  •   Paragraph Writing
the audiolingual method
  • Where does it come from?

It comes from the World War II. when America became aware that it needed people to learn foreign languages very quickly as part of its overall military operations. 

The "Army Method" was suddenly developed to build communicative competence in translators through very intensive language courses focusing on aural/oral skills.

key fetures
Key fetures
  • New material is presented in dialog form.
  • There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and overlearning.
  • Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive analysis and taught one at a time.
  • Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills
  •  There is little or no grammatical explanation. 
  • Grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than deductive explanation.
  • Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context.
  • Great importance is attached to pronunciation.
  • Very little use of the mother tongue by teachers is permitted.
  • Successful responses are immediately reinforced.
typical techniques2
  •  Dialog Memorization
  • Repitition Drill
  • Chain Drill
  • Multiple-slot Substitution Drill
  •  Transformation Drill
  • Question-and-answer Drill
  • Use of Minimal Pairs
  • Complete the Dialog
  • Grammar Games
community language learning

Wheredoesit come from?

In the early seventies, Charles Curran developed a new education model he called “Counceling-Learning” drawing on Carl Rogers' view that learners were to be considered not as a class, but as a group, Curran's philosophy dictated that students were to be thought of as "clients"

key features2
Key features
  • Students are to be considered as "learner-clients" and the teacher as a "teacher-councelor".
  • A relationship of mutual trust and support is considered essential to the learning process.
  • Students are permitted to use their native language, and are provided with translations from the teacher which they then attempt to apply.
  • Grammar and vocabulary are taught inductively.
  •  "Chunks" of target language produced by the students are recorded and later listened to – they are also transcribed with native language equivalents to become texts the students work with.
  • Students apply the target language independently and without translation when they feel inclined/ confident enough to do so.
typical techniques3
  • Tape Recording Student Conversation
  • Transcription
  • Reflection on Experience
  • Reflective Listening
  • Human Computer
  • Small Group Tasks
the silent way
The silent way.

Where does it come from?

In the sixties in the form of the Cognitive Code and an educational trend known as "Discovery Learning." 

Students have to be more responsable of own learning.

Learning wasnt all about mimic and good


key features3
Key features.
  • Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned.
  • Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects.
  • Learning is facilitated by problem-solving involving the material to be learned.
typical techniques4
Typical techniques.
  • Sound-Color Chart
  • Teacher's Silence
  •  Peer Correction
  • Rods
  • Self-correction Gestures
  •  Word Chart

Where does it come from?

In the late 70s, a Bulgarian psychologist by the name of Georgi Lozanov introduced the contention that students naturally set up psychological barriers to learning - based on fears that they will be unable to perform and are limited in terms of their ability to learn

key features4
Key features.
  • Learning is facilitated in an environment that is as comfortable as possible, featuring soft  cushioned seating and good lighting.
  • "Peripheral" learning is encouraged through the presence in the learning environment of posters and decorations featuring the target language and various grammatical information.
  • The teacher assumes a role of complete authority and control in the classroom.
  • Students are encouraged to be child-like, take "mental trips with the teacher" and assume new roles and names in the target language
  • Errors are tolerated.Grammar and vocabulary are presented and given treatment from the teacher.
  • Homework is limited to students
typical techniques5
Typical techniques.
  • Classroom Set-up
  • Peripheral Learning
  • Positive Suggestion
  • Visualization
  • Choose a New Identity
  • Role-play
total physical response
Total physical response.

Where does it come from?

Already in the late 1980s, a French teacher of Latin (Francois Gouin) developed method of language teaching that capitalized on the way children naturally learn their first language, through the transformation of perceptions into conceptions and then the expression of those conceptions using language.

key features5
Key features.
  • The teacher directs and students "act" in response
  • Listening and physical response skills are emphasized over oral production.
  • The imperative mood is the most common language function employed, even well into advanced levels.  Interrogatives are also heavily used.
  • Whenever possible, humor is injected into the lessons to make them more enjoyable for learners.
  • Students are not required to speak until they feel naturally ready or confident enough to do so.
  • Grammar and vocabulary are emphasized over other language areas.  Spoken language iszs<emphasized over written language.
typical techniques6
Typical techniques
  • Using Commands to Direct Behavior
  • Role Reversal
  • Action Sequence
natural method
Natural method.

Where does it come from?

Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell developed the Natural Approach in the early eighties (Krashen and Terrell, 1983), shared a lot in common with Asher's Total Physical Response method in terms of advocating the need for a silent phase, waiting for spoken production to "emerge.

key features6
Key features.

There are three generic stages identified in the approach:

  • Preproduction developing listening skills;
  • Early Productionstudents struggle with the language
  • Extending Productionpromoting fluency through a variety of more challenging activities.