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Small Off-Road Engines and Large Spark-Ignition Engines with Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop. April 21, 2008. Outline. Background: small off-road engines (SORE) Proposed changes for SORE

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Small Off-Road Engines and Large Spark-Ignition Engines with Displacement Less Than or Equal to One Liter Workshop

April 21, 2008

  • Background: small off-road engines (SORE)
  • Proposed changes for SORE
  • Background: large spark-ignition engines with displacement less than or equal to one liter (LSI ≤ 1 L)
  • Proposed changes for LSI ≤ 1 L
  • Contact Information
background sore credits
Background: SORE Credits
  • Production emission credits established in 1998 to provide flexibility during transitional period of emission standard changes
  • U.S. EPA considered use of production emission credits at the time, but ultimately did not adopt
background sore credits1
Background: SORE Credits

Comments From First Workshop and Subsequent Meetings

  • Retain Production Credits
  • Do not discount credit value
  • Do not limit credit life
  • Do not tie credit life to warranty period
proposed changes sore credits
Proposed Changes: SORE Credits
  • Elimination of Production Credits
    • Accrual of Production Credits cease in year 2009
    • Existing Production Credits may be used until year 2012 at full value
  • Retention of Certification Credits
    • Limit lifetime to 5 years at full value
proposed changes sore credit option
Proposed Changes: SORE Credit Option
  • Obtain Certification Credits for advanced electric equipment
    • Battery retains enough charge
      • To power equipment at commercial equipment level
      • For the time equivalent to an average full tank of fuel
      • For 300/500/1000 hours depending on “engine displacement”
proposed changes sore emission durability period
Proposed Changes: SORE Emission Durability Period
  • Limit durability period to five years or current number of hours, whichever comes first
  • Unchanged from previous proposal
background lsi 1 l
Background: LSI ≤ 1 L
  • May 2006, Board approved more stringent emission standards for LSI > 1 L
  • LSI ≤ 1 L not addressed at that time
  • November 2007 workshop, staff proposed alignment with U.S. EPA
  • Further review showed additional reductions needed
  • The LSI ≤ 1 L equipment is approaching 50% of total projected sales
engine displacement trends
Engine Displacement Trends
  • More than 70% of 2008 certified LSI ≤ 1 L engine families have engines > 950 cc
  • The number of engine families offered with displacements between 1.0 L and 1.6 L has declined to zero
  • The relatively larger displacement and power ratings indicate a migration from the more stringent category to the less stringent category
proposed hc nox standards
Proposed HC+NOx Standards

LSI ≤ 1 L

LSI > 1 L

proposed hc nox standards1
Proposed HC+NOx Standards
  • 6.5 g/kW-hr (5 g/bhp-hr) HC+NOx standard was originally proposed in the 1998 LSI rulemaking, based on the SwRI test results with a reasonable compliance margin
  • There are nine 2008 MY certified engine families meeting the 2010 standards (6.5 g/kW-hr of HC+NOx) and two engine families meeting the 2014 standards ( 0.8 g/kW-hr of HC+NOx)
industry comments
Industry Comments

Proposal would require:

  • Water-cooled engines
  • Three-way catalysts (TWC)
water cooled engines
Water-Cooled Engines
  • More than 70% of 2007 certified engine families are water-cooled multicylinder engines
  • 10 out of 12 certified manufacturers (2007 MY) have at least one water-cooled family
  • Water-cooled engines can be made to be more fuel efficient, to emit less greenhouse gases (CO2), and to be cleaner burning
three way catalysts
Three-Way Catalysts
  • 18% engine families currently certified with a catalyst
  • 5 out of 12 certified manufacturers (2007 MY) have at least one TWC family
  • TWC are a proven emissions control technology
proposed changes lsi 1 l evaporative emission standards
Proposed Changes: LSI ≤ 1 LEvaporative Emission Standards
  • Required to meet LSI > 1 Levaporative emission standards, starting in 2010
  • This may require the use of low permeation hoses and fuel tanks
  • Manufacturers may choose performance-based or design-based standards
proposed changes lsi 1 l test procedures
Proposed Changes: LSI ≤ 1 LTest Procedures
  • Required to meet LSI > 1L test procedures, starting in 2010
  • Test cycles: Steady-state, transient, and field testing
  • Constant speed LSI engines need run steady-state test cycle only
additional information requested
Additional Information Requested
  • Staff is still gathering cost estimates and encourages submission of specific relevant data
  • Cost differential between air-cooled and water-cooled engines
  • Cost of catalyst system to meet proposed standards
contact information
Contact Information
  • Board Hearing will be held on September 25-26, 2008
  • Please send comments to

SORE: Yun Hui Park

[email protected] (626)450-6263

LSI: Hung-Li Chang

[email protected] (626)575-6683