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AO2 – Narrative methods. Narrative viewpoint Time and sequence Language and imagery Setting Characterisation Openings Endings. Looking at narrative viewpoint. Who is telling the story? How much do they know? What is the narrator’s attitude towards the

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AO2 – Narrative methods


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    1. AO2 – Narrative methods • Narrative viewpoint • Time and sequence • Language and imagery • Setting • Characterisation • Openings • Endings

    2. Looking at narrative viewpoint • Who is telling the story? • How much do they know? • What is the narrator’s attitude towards the • events and people he is describing and how • can we tell? • How do the narrator’s word choices and • comments influence the reader’s view of • events and characters?

    3. Looking at time and sequence • Over what period of time does the story take place? • Are events in chronological or non-chronological order? • If in non-chronological order, how does what we learn first • affect our response to what we’re told afterwards? • Does the writer want us to link events from different • times? Do some events prepare us for others or explain • why others happened? • Which events are ‘shown’ in detail, unfolding slowly? Which • are ‘told’ briefly? Why? • How are suspense, tension and anticipation built up, e.g. • by references to time or by delaying important events? • Useful words and phrases for talking about time were • given to you on a green sheet.

    4. Looking at language and imagery • Mood? • Vocabulary – connotation, words from the • same semantic field, Romantic vocabulary? • Sensual imagery - sounds, smells, colours, etc.? • Poetic devices -simile, metaphor, symbolism, • personification, etc.? • Sentence structure used for effect - very short • sentences, lists, etc? • Tone – sad, serious, regretful, ironic, etc? • Sound of the language –harsh or soft sounds, • onomatopeoia

    5. Looking at characterisation Characterisation = the methods a writer uses to portray a character what the character says physical appearance setting the character is placed in body language speech style what other characters say and think about the character

    6. Looking at setting • Where do the events take place? • What are these places like? • How are they described? • Why/ how does the writer use this setting? e.g. • - makes certain events likely or possible • - creates mood/atmosphere • - is symbolic • - reflects character

    7. Section A first question (Write about the ways Fitzgerald tells the story…) AO2 (Form, structure & language) • Introduction • SEE NEXT SLIDE • Main body • Narrative viewpoint – must include this for FORM • Time / sequence – must include this for STRUCTURE • Setting • Characterisation • Language / imagery – you must write about LANGUAGE • but this could be part of your discussion of one of the • other narrative methods

    8. Section A first question (Write about the ways Fitzgerald tells the story…) AO2 (Form, structure & language) Introduction An introduction is not necessary. (SEE NEXT FEW SLIDES FOR EGS OF ESSAYS THAT ‘GO STRAIGHT IN’) If you do write one, keep it to one or two sentences. You could sum up: • what we learn /what is revealed in this chapter • which characters are introduced / developed • moments of crisis / tension in the chapter.

    9. Section A first question (Write about the ways Fitzgerald tells the story…) AO2 (Form, structure & language) Good essays immediately focus on narrative methods: (Slide 1 of 5)

    10. Section A first question (Write about the ways Fitzgerald tells the story…) AO2 (Form, structure & language) Good essays immediately focus on narrative methods: (Slide 1 of 5)

    11. Section A first question (Write about the ways Fitzgerald tells the story…) AO2 (Form, structure & language) Good essays immediately focus on narrative methods (Slide 3 of 5)

    12. Section A first question (Write about the ways Fitzgerald tells the story…) AO2 (Form, structure & language) Good essays immediately focus on narrative methods: (Slide 1 of 5)

    13. Section A first question (Write about the ways Fitzgerald tells the story…) AO2 (Form, structure & language) Good essays immediately focus on narrative methods: (Slide 1 of 5)

    14. Revising The Great Gatsby – AO2 • For each chapter, make notes on: • The chapter’s importance to the story as a whole, e.g: • - what we learn • - which characters are introduced or developed • - key events/developments • Key events/moments of greatest drama in the chapter • Ways the following are used for effect in the chapter: • - time and sequence • - setting • - characterisation • - language and imagery • - narrator

    15. Example of notes on a chapter Chapter 5 • Importance of this chapter to the story as a whole • Reader finally sees how Daisy and Gatsby behave when they meet • More of Gatsby’s character revealed – vulnerability, feelings for Daisy • More of Daisy’s character revealed – her feelings for Gatsby • Unease – readers are all the time aware of Tom • Time and sequence • Meeting between Daisy and Gatsby delayed by 3 pages – builds reader’s • anticipation • Specific references to time leading up to Daisy’s arrival help build tension • and anticipation • Their meeting described in detail – their words, body language, etc.

    16. Example of notes on a chapter Chapter 5 • Setting • Meeting at Nick’s house: Daisy more likely to agree to go to cousin’s • house; also Daisy more impressed at Gatsby’s house after meeting him at • Nick’s more modest house • Symbolic use of clock on Nick’s mantelpiece – Gatsby wants to go back • to past • Nick’s garden described in detail as he waits • Pathetic fallacy – rain and sun to reflect emotions of Gatsby and Daisy • Private areas of Gatsby’s mansion shown for first time – gives insight into • his character, e.g. his bedroom ‘simplest room of all’, colours - lavender

    17. Example of notes on a chapter Chapter 5 • Characterisation • See dramatic shift in Daisy – quiet, serious rather than flirtatious and • childlike • Daisy’s reaction to shirts – shallowness, concern with wealth • Lot of dialogue used • Gatsby vulnerable, almost pathetic – body language, speech, Nick’s • impatient speech and comments • Gatsby’s façade vs inner feelings reflected in his house

    18. Example of notes on a chapter Chapter 5 • Language and imagery • ‘peninsula was blazing fire’ – mocking ironic description of Gatby’s • showy & tasteless house • descriptions of Gatsby as vulnerable – ‘pale as death’, ‘glaring tragically’, • slightly ironic – conveys Nick’s irritation • use of colour in Gatsby’s and Daisy’s clothing – ‘lavender hat’, his • ‘lavender’ shirts – links them • shirts – ‘soft, rich heap’, ‘sheer linen’ • odour of flowers, rain, lots of sensory description; pathetic fallacy • Daisy in car, framed, filmic description

    19. Example of notes on a chapter Chapter 5 • Narrator • Nick surprised at how ‘modest’ Gatsby’s request is – evokes sympathy • for Gatsby and conveys strength of his dogged pursuit of Daisy • Nick uncomfortable with the situation • finds Gatsby irritating/childish & mocks him • time spent in garden – Nick not present so reader can’t know what • exactly Gatsby and Daisy say to each other – element of mystery

    20. AO3 - Interpretations • Key themes in The Great Gatsby • Class, money, the American Dream • Morality, corruption, decadence, greed • Love, marriage, adultery • Truth, pretence, deceit • The past • Friendship, loyalty

    21. Revising The Great Gatsby – AO3 • Brainstorm examples of each of these • themes in the novel • Class, money, the American Dream • Morality, corruption, decadence, greed • Love, marriage, adultery • Truth, pretence, deceit • The past • Friendship, loyalty

    22. Example of a theme brainstorm Nick looking back on events of past summer and how they’ve affected him symbolism of clock (Ch. 5, p. 93) Jordan’s narrative (Ch. 4) of Gatsby & Daisy’s past relationship refs. to WW1 Gatsby met Dan Cody and reinvented himself (Ch. 7) The past Nick says ‘you can’t repeat the past’; Gatsby says ‘Of course you can’ and ‘I’m going to fix everything just the way it was before’ (Ch. 6, p. 117) Gatsby’s ‘extraordinary gift for hope’ (Ch. 1) Constant ref. to Gatsby’s ‘dreams’, e.g. Ch. 1, p. 8 Gatsby’s father shows Nick Gatsby’s teenage journal (Ch. 9) Nick’s narrative of Gatsby and Daisy’s Kiss (Ch. 6, p. 118) rumours about Gatsby’s past (party, Ch. 3)

    23. Some critical Interpretations of The Great Gatsby portrays ‘a group of people bent only on the gratification of their own desires’ (Parkinson, p. 23) the tale of the irresponsible rich (eNotes, p. 62) define[s] the moral chaos of a society which has rejected any values but wealth (Parkinson, p. 23) The characters are morally blind (Parkinson, p. 94) deception, self-deception and delusion are important features of the lives of all the characters. (Parkinson, p. 37) West and East are two opposing poles of values: one is pure and idealistic, and the other is corrupt and materialistic (eNotes, p. 62)

    24. Some critical Interpretations of The Great Gatsby without his idealism, Gatsby is just a crook (John Sutherland, 2001, lecture) [Gatsby is] a tragic figure…yet…implicated fully in the corruption of the 1920s’ (Parkinson, p. 37) Nick is a romantic, moralist and judge (eNotes, p. 62) Nick recognize[s] parallels in his own impulses and desires [and Gatsby’s] (Parkinson, p. 23) In a letter written in 1937, Fitzgerald says that he tried to create a quality/mood of ‘hauntedness’ in the novel. (Parkinson, p. 37)

    25. Revising Contexts – AO4 You should know something about all these and be able to relate them to specific examples in The Great Gatsby. See the green sheet with summaries by different students) Jazz Age/Roaring Twenties Decadence The American Dream Prohibition Conspicuous consumption (Veblen) The automobile The Lost Generation Modernism