2014 Hippology Review. Types of Flies. Horse fly Deer fly House fly Tick Mosquito Bot. Major Parasites. The major gastro-intestinal nematode parasites of horses are A. Large Strongyles – ( Strongylus vulgaris, S . edentatus , S . equinus and Triodontophorus )
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Types of Flies • Horse fly Deer fly • House fly Tick • Mosquito Bot
Major Parasites • The major gastro-intestinal nematode parasites of horses are • A. Large Strongyles – (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus and Triodontophorus) • B. Small Strongyles - (Cyathostomes, Cylicocyclus, Cylicostephanus and Gyalacephalus). • C. Large Roundworms - (Parascarisequorum) • D. Pinworms (Oxyurisequi) • E. Threadworm (Strongyloideswesteri) • F. Stomach worms(Trichostrongylusaxe, Draschiamegastoma and Habronemamusca, Habronemamajus). • G. Tapeworms (Anopolocephalus magna, Anopolocephalusperfoliataand Paranoplocephalamammillana) • H. Bots (Gasterophilusintestinalus)
Parasite eggs • StrongylesAscarid • Pinworm
Types of Wounds • Open wounds can be classified according to the object that caused the wound. The types of open wound are: • Incisions or incised wounds, caused by a clean, sharp-edged object such as a knife, razor, or glass splinter. • Lacerations, irregular tear-like wounds caused by some blunt trauma. Lacerations and incisions may appear linear (regular) or stellate (irregular). The term laceration is commonly misused in reference to incisions. • Abrasions (grazes), superficial wounds in which the topmost layer of the skin (the epidermis) is scraped off. Abrasions are often caused by a sliding fall onto a rough surface. • Avulsions, injuries in which a body structure is forcibly detached from its normal point of insertion. A type of amputation where the extremity is pulled off rather than cut off. • Puncture wounds, caused by an object puncturing the skin, such as a splinter, nail or needle.
Incisions • Incisions or incised wounds, caused by a clean, sharp-edged object such as a knife, razor, or glass splinter.
Lacerations • Lacerations, irregular tear-like wounds caused by some blunt trauma. Lacerations and incisions may appear linear (regular) or stellate (irregular). The term laceration is commonly misused in reference to incisions.
Abrasions • Abrasions (grazes), superficial wounds in which the topmost layer of the skin (the epidermis) is scraped off. Abrasions are often caused by a sliding fall onto a rough surface.
Avulsions • Avulsions, injuries in which a body structure is forcibly detached from its normal point of insertion. A type of amputation where the extremity is pulled off rather than cut off.
Punctures • Puncture wounds, caused by an object puncturing the skin, such as a splinter, nail or needle.
Polo • The St Croix Polo Front offers superior traction, turns, and better breakover with its signature higher inside rim.
Sliding shoe The shoe design pattern and nail hole placement compares to other patterns in the marketplace. However the Pride series offers cleaner and more consistent hole punching, a flatter shoe, and a more refined heel finish.
Mule shoe • Shaped for the hoof of a mule
X-ray shows degenerative changes of the hock • Horse was markedly lame and blocking the hock joint markedly improved his lameness
Sarcoids • There are many different types of sarcoids and therefore their appearance can differ greatly. Some are hairless areas of crusting (occult), wart-like (verrucose), nodular, fleshy, ulcerated, bleeding (fibroblastic) or mixed. They are generally considered to be a type of ‘skin cancer’ which is limited to the skin and underlying tissue. Sarcoids do not ‘spread’ to internal organs though they can be locally aggressive. They characteristically are unpredictable and therefore can be difficult to treat.
Melanoma • Found at back end of gray horses
Squamous Cell Carcinoma • Typically found around eye or genitals
Foal presentation issues Breech presentation w/ hind legs in passage Posterior or breech position
Foal presentation issues One foreleg deflected back Both forelegs deflected/elbow lock
Foal presentation issues Wry neck Upside down foal
Hip lock Dog sitting position Looks like a normal presentation until the back legs appear after the nose and front legs • Foaling appears to be going fine until the foal stops coming out • The hips get stock on the mares pelvic bone
Red Bag – very bad Normal appearance – bluish sac
Determining age of horse using teeth • By the time a horse is fully developed, usually at around five years of age, it will have between 36 and 44 teeth. All horses have twelve incisors at the front of the mouth, used primarily for cutting food, most often grass, whilst grazing. They are also used as part of a horse's attack or defense against predators, or as part of establishing social hierarchy within the herd. • Immediately behind the front incisors is the interdental space, where no teeth grow from the gums. This is where the bit is placed when horses are ridden. • Behind the interdental space, all horses also have twelve premolars and twelve molars, also known as cheek teeth or jaw teeth. These teeth chew food bitten off by incisors, prior to swallowing. • In addition to the incisors, premolars and molars, some, but not all, horses may also have canine teeth and wolf teeth. A horse can have between zero and four canine teeth, also known as tusks (tushes for the deciduous precursor), with a clear prevalence towards male horses (stallions and geldings) who normally have a full set of four. Fewer than 28% of female horses (mares) have any canine teeth. Those that do normally only have one or two, and these may by only partially erupted. • Between 13 and 32% of horses, split equally between male and female, also have wolf teeth, which are not related to canine teeth, but are vestigial premolars. Wolf teeth are more common on the upper jaw, and can present a problem for horses in work, as they can interfere with the bit. They may also make it difficult during equine dentistry work to rasp the second premolar, and are frequently removed.
Summary of teeth • Adult horses have 36 - 44 teeth • All horses have 12 incisors, 12 permolars, and 12 molars • Some, but not all horses have canine and wolf teeth • Canine teeth are more prevalent in males and they can have 1 – 4 canine teeth • Wolf teeth can be found in males and females, but are only seen in 13 – 32% of all horses • Wolf teeth are the teeth that are sometimes removed due to interfering with the bit