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  1. Students Reading Below Grade Level: 4th Grade By: Annie La ED 7202, Spring 2012

  2. Table of Contents • Introduction • Statement of Problem • Review of Literature • Statement of Hypothesis • Participants • Instrument(s) • Research Design • Procedure • Results • Discussion • Implication • References

  3. Introduction • Successful reading comprehension increases reading level (Pang, Muaka, Bernhardt & Kamil, n.d.) • College readiness (ACT, n.d) • Instructions, research and simple tasks (Mounce, n.d.) • Reading Strategies • Include fluency, vocabulary and comprehension (Duncan, 2010) • Student frustration without application of reading strategies (Cooper, n.d.) • Teachers need to model skills and strategies (Brenda, Buck & Giles, 2009)

  4. Statement of Problem • Eight million students in the nation read below grade level (Alliance of Excellent Eduaction, 2006) • 40% are not fluent readers (Begeny, 2011) • 46% of large city public schools in the fourth grade read below reading level. • (The National Center for Education Statistics, 2009) • 34% of the Nations public schools in the fourth graders are below reading level. • (The National Center for Education Statistics, 2009)

  5. Review of Literature: Current Instructional Strategy • Read aloud • Model reading fluency (Kruse, 2007) • Children learn through interactive read aloud (Campbell, 2001) • Preview- Predict- Confirm Model (Furtado, 2008) • Guided Reading • Small groups working on the same reading strategy (Thames, 2008) • Provides structure, instruction and purpose to reading (Ford & Opitz, 2011)

  6. Pros: Read Aloud • Increases comprehension of text, build vocabulary and familiarity with sound • (Cummins & Stellmeyer-Gerade, 2011) • Provide students with reading fluency • (Adamson, Adamson, Anderson, Clausen-Grace, Earnes, Einarson, … Wooten, 2006) • Critical questioning through text and talk • (Beck & McKeown, 2001)

  7. Cons: Read Aloud • Does not teach reading strategies and skills • Nonsense Word Fluency: phonetics and decoding(Cummings, Dewey, Latimer & Good III, 2011) • Prevents beginning readers from reading independently • Lost of interest • Comfort of read aloud(Kruse,2007)

  8. Pros: Guided Reading • Students become independent readers • (Ford & Opitz, 2011) • Build comprehension strategies through model and practice • (Ferguson & Wilson, 2009) • Increase reading comprehension, accuracy, fluency and vocabulary • (Ford & Opitz, 2011) • Gain skills in word recognition, reading texts and writing • (Santa & Hoien, 1999)

  9. Cons: Guided Reading • The strategies taught in guided reading are redundant and can be seen in other lessons throughout the day. • Reading skills and strategies are taught as part of a lesson within the curriculum • (Ferguson & Wilson, 2009)

  10. Theorists & Practitioners • Francis Galton: mental measurement • Lewis Terman- intelligence test in 1922 • (Cadenhead, 1987) • Fountas & Pinnell: A-Z text gradient • (Thomas, n.d.) • Guided Reading: • Emmett Betts- directed reading activity in 1946 • Lillian Gray and Dora Reese- guided reading questions • (Ford & Opitz , 2011)

  11. Statement of Hypothesis • Providing one group of six - fourth grade students in P.S. X, Brooklyn, NY with guided reading instruction for 40 minutes, every morning, four days a week for six weeks, will increase students’ reading level as measured by Fountas and Pinnell’s running record. • Having the second group of six - fourth grade students in P.S. X, Brooklyn, NY without guided reading instruction, every morning, four days a week for six weeks, will not increase students’ reading level as measured by Fountas and Pinnell’s running record.

  12. Participants • Two focus groups • Group 1: extra guided reading in the morning • Group 2: does not receive guided reading in the morning

  13. Research Design • Quasi-Experimental Design • Non-equivalent control group • Two groups • Groups randomly assigned but individuals are not • Individuals based on reading level: J/K/L • Groups may include IEP and ELL learners • Symbol Design:O X1 O O X2 O • (O) Pre-test, (X1) Treatment for Group 1, (X2) Treatment for Group 2, (O) Post-test

  14. Threats to Internal Validity • History • Maturation • Testing/ Pretesting • Instrumentation • Mortality • Statistical Regression • Selection-Maturation Interaction

  15. Threats to External Validity • Ecological Validity • New York City public schools • Multiple Treatments • An increase in guided reading throughout the day/week • Novelty Effect • Guided reading books online

  16. Procedure • Fountas & Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System: Level K • Pre-Test: January • Post-Test: March • Accuracy scores: • 95%-100%- independent level K, re-tested level L • 90%-95%- guided reading level K • Below 90%- re-tested level J

  17. Pre-Test/ Post-Test Results 3.70% 5.89%

  18. Survey Analysis and Correlation .rxy= 0.229 .rxy=0.797 Pre-Test Scores Post Test Scores

  19. Bell Curve Post-Test Mean: 90.75 SD: 8.058 Var: 64.932 Pre-Test Mean: 86.583 SD: 8.163 Var: 66.629

  20. Discussion & Implications • Additional guided reading instruction increases reading level • Treatment group V.S. Non-treatment group: 5% increase • Further research is needed • Extended period of time

  21. References • ACT. Reading between the lines: what the ACT reveals about college readiness in reading. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/FF204E0B-65B5-4DD4-9FAE-EE0C99ACB370/0/ACTReportSummary.pdf • Adamson, P., Adamson, B., Anderson, L., Clausen-Grace, N., Earnes, A., Einarson, C., … Wooten, A. (2006). Read and write it out loud!: Guided oral literacy strategies. School Library Journal, 52, 90. • Alliance for Excellent Education. (2006, February). Adolescent literacy [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/F62A486B-B05E-48F6-9503-F2A129416D28/0/AdolescentLiteracyFactSheet.pdf • Beck, I., & McKeown, M. (2001). Capturing the benefits of read-aloud experiences for young children. The Reading Teacher.55 (1), 10-20. • Begeny, C. (2011). Effects of the helping early literacy with practice strategies (HELPS) reading fluency program when implemented at different frequencies. The School Psychology Review, 40 (1), 149-57. • Brenda, B., Buck, K., & Giles, R. (2009). First-grade reading gains following enrichment: phonics plus decodable texts compared to authentic literature read aloud. Reading Improvement, 46(4), 191-205. • Cadenhead, K. (1987). Reading level: A metaphor that shapes practice. The Phi Delta Kappan, 68(6), 436-441. • Campbell, R. (2001). Read-alouds with young children. International Reading Association, 114. • Cooper, D. (n.d.). Stopping reading failure: Reading intervention for upper-grade students. Retrieved from http://www.beyond-the-book.com/strategies/strategies_012506.html • Cummings, K., Dewey, E., Latimer, R., & Good III, R. (June 2011). Pathways to word reading and decoding: The roles of automaticity and accuracy. The School Psychology Review, 40 (2), 284-295. • Cummins, S., & Stellmeyer-Gerade, C. (2011).Teaching for synthesis for informational texts with read-alouds. Reading Teacher,64(6), 394-405. • Duncan, P. (2010). Instilling a lifelong love of reading. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 46 (2), 90-93. • English Language Arts [Chart]. (2011). Retrieved from New York City Department of Education Web Site: http://schools.nyc.gov/daa/test_info/default.asp

  22. References • Ferguson, J., & Wilson, J. (2009). Guided reading: It’s for the primary teachers. College Reading Association Yearbook, 30, 293-306. • Ford, M., & Opitz, M. (2011). Looking back to move forward with guided reading. Reading Horizons, 50(4), 225-240. • Furtado, L. (2008). A read-aloud cross-age service learning partnership using multicultural stories. The Reading Matrix,8(2), 96-107. • Kruse, M. (2007). Read- alouds? Think again. School Library Journal, 53(6), 36-37. • Mounce, A. (n.d.). Strategies to teach students reading below grade level. Retrieved from http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&CONTENTID=9647&CAT=none • National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Science. (2009). Trial urban district snapshot report: Reading 2009. [Data set]. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/dst2009/2010461XN4.pdf • O’Connor-Petruso, S. (2012). Descriptive Statistics Threats to Validity [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://bbhosted.cuny.edu/webapps/portal/ • Pang, E., Muaka, A., Bernhardt, E., & Kamil, M. (n.d.). Teaching reading: Educational practices series- 12. International Academy of Education, 6-24. • Prado, L., Lee, P. (2011). Increasing reading comprehension through the explicit teaching of reading strategies: Is there a difference among the genders? Reading Improvement, 48 (1), 32-43. • Ross, J. (2004). Effects of running records assessment on early literacy achievement. Journal of Education Research, 97(4), 186-194. • Santa, C., & Hoien, T. (1999). An assessment of early steps: A program for early intervention of reading problems. Reading Research Quarterly. 34, 54-79. • Thames, D., Reeves, C., Kazelskis, R., York, K., Boling, C., Newell, K., & Yang, W. (2008). Reading comprehension: Effects of individualized, integrated language arts as a reading approach with struggling readers. Reading Psychology, 29, 86-115. • Thomas. (n.d.). Fountas and Pinnell- Early literacy experts offer new reading intervention program. Retrieved from http://www.openeducation.net/2009/05/15/fountas-and-pinnell-early-literacy-experts-offer-new-reading-intervention-program/

  23. Student Survey Sample Question: Part I: Frequencies Directions: Fill in the lettered box corresponding to your answer. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Never- Once 2-3 times 4-5 times Everyday 0 times per week per week per week • I spend time reading outside of school. 1. _______ • I spend time reading in school. 2. _______ Part III: Short Response • What are some of your favorite books to read? _______________________________________________________

  24. Student Surveys Cont. Sample Question: Part IV: Background Information Directions: Fill in completely the lettered box corresponding to your answer. Example: Answer = a = = b = = c = = d = = e = 1. Gender: a. Male b. Female 1. __________ 2. Where were you born? 2. ________ a. USA b. South/ Central America c. Europe or Canada d. Asia e. Africa

  25. Teacher Survey Sample Question Part II: Agree/ Disagree Directions: Fill in the lettered box corresponding to your answer. Example: (1) (2) (3) (4) Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree 1. My lesson plans are interdisciplinary with reading. 1. ____ 2. I conduct read aloud in my classroom. 2. ____