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Ocean Energy Alla Weinstein, President

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Ocean Energy Alla Weinstein, President. Agenda. Ocean Energy Resources Stage of Technology Development Socio Economic & Environmental Impacts Barriers to Overcome Cooperation Recommendations. Ocean Energy Resources. Ocean Energy Potential. Wave Energy – 45,000 TWh/year

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Ocean Energy

Alla Weinstein, President

agenda
Agenda
  • Ocean Energy Resources
  • Stage of Technology Development
  • Socio Economic & Environmental Impacts
  • Barriers to Overcome
  • Cooperation
  • Recommendations
ocean energy potential
Ocean Energy Potential
  • Wave Energy – 45,000 TWh/year
  • Ocean Currents – 400 TWh/year
  • Tidal – 1,800 TWh/year
  • Ocean Thermal – 33,000 TWh/year
  • Osmotic – 20,000 TWh/year

Source: Ocean Energy: Prospects & Potential, Isaacs & Schmitt, with 15% utilization factor & 50% capacity factor

stage of technology development
Stage of Technology Development
  • Ocean Energy state of the art
    • Has matured significantly over the last 5 years
    • Entered Early Commercialization
  • Large scale test installations are either developed or under development
installed capacity
Installed Capacity
  • Wave ~ 1.7 MW
      • Pico, Azores – 0.4 MW
      • Limpet, Islay – 0.5 MW
      • Pelamis, Portugal – 0.7 MW
  • Tidal ~ 266 MW
      • Barrage – 240MW La Rance; 20MW CA; 5MW China
      • Current – 1MW, MCT, IE; 0.5MW, Verdant, USA
  • OTEC ~ 0.2 MW
      • Hawaii, USA
global wave power distribution
Global Wave Power Distribution

Annual average wave energy flux per unit width of wave crest (kilowatts/m)

onshore wave grid connected owc
Onshore Wave – Grid Connected OWC

PICO Plant, Portugal

1999, 400kW

LIMPET, Wavegen, UK

2000, 500kW

offshore wave owc
Offshore Wave - OWC

OceanLynx, Australia

2005, 450 kW

OE Buoy, Ireland

2006, 20 KW

offshore wave subsurface
Offshore Wave - Subsurface

AWS, Portugal

2005, 2MW

Wave Roller, Finland

2006, 13 kW

offshore wave surface
Offshore Wave - Surface

Pelamis, UK

2005, 750kW

WaveDragon, Denmark

2003, 20kW

offshore wave point absorbers
Offshore Wave – Point Absorbers

AquaBuOY, USA

2007, ~ 20kW

Power Buoy, USA

2005, 40kW

Wavebob, Ireland

2006, 200kW

tidal energy generation
Tidal Energy Generation

Tidal changes in sea level occur as Earth rotates beneath bulges in ocean envelope, which are produced by solar and lunar gravitational forces.

North PoleEarth rotates counter-clockwise

MOON’S ORBIT

tidal resources

1. Siberia2. Inchon, Korea3. Hangchow, China4. Hall's Point, Australia5. New Zealand6. Anchorage, Alaska7. Panama8. Chile9. Punta Loyola, Argentina10. Brazil

11. Bay of Fundy12. Frobisher Bay, Canada13. Wales, UK14. Antwerp, Belgium15. LeHavre, France16. Guinea17. Gujarat, India18. Burma19. Semzha River, Russia20. Colorado River, Mexico21. Madagascar

Tidal Resources
tidal current devices
Tidal Current Devices

Gorlov Helical Turbine, 2005, USA

Hammerfest Strom, 2006, Norway

tidal current devices1
Tidal Current Devices

MTC, 2006, UK

Verdant Power, 2006, USA

ocean currents
Ocean Currents

Global redistribution of heat by ocean currents. As global warming accelerates evaporative transfer of fresh water to poles, conveyor belt slows.

Winds move 60 % of “excess heat” from equator to poles (primarily via extratropical and tropical storms), while ocean currents move 40% (thermohaline “conveyor belt”).

ocean current devices
Ocean Current Devices

Open Hydro, 2007, UK (EMEC)

ocean thermal energy
Ocean Thermal Energy

Sun-Sea, USA

OTEC-Mini, 1998, Hawaii, USA

osmotic energy1
Osmotic Energy

StatKarft, Norway (randition)

socio economic environmental
Socio Economic & Environmental
  • Socio Economic
      • Coastal job creations ~ 10-20 jobs/MW
      • Utilization of existing infrastructure
      • Emissions aversion
  • Environmental
    • Three environmental assessments – FONSI
    • Main areas of concern – solved via design
      • Withdrawal of energy
      • Spill or leakage from hydraulic-based devices
      • Noise for OWC
non technical barriers
Non-Technical Barriers
  • Economic Incentives
      • Long-term feed-in tariffs have proven to work
  • Access and availability of the electrical grid
      • A major expansion factor
  • Regulatory Framework
      • Standardization is required
  • Availability of Resource Data
  • Public Awareness
eu cooperation investments
EU Cooperation & Investments
  • Cooperation should be encouraged and promoted
  • Private investors are looking for:
      • Government support to offset initial risks
      • Feed-in tariffs
      • Long-term power purchase obligations
      • Investor incentives
  • Funding needs to concentrate on demonstration projects
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Large number of device concepts
    • Future funding programs should concentrate bridging the “valley of death” and the “death peak”
  • Grid availability will be a major hindering factor to growth