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Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
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  1. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Pierre Cannon Sumon Nandy Amy Nandy December 18, 2009

  2. Problem Statement, Mission • Problem Statement: • A clean, renewable energy source that provides baseload power without impacting the environment, regardless of seasonal weather conditions, does not exist for supplying power to African nations. • Mission: • To develop a feasible architecture and business strategy for an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion system deployed off the African coast. OTEC African Deployment

  3. Project Team Role • Sponsor : Lockheed Martin • Team Role: Research Contractor • Sponsor Focus Areas Tasks: • Feasibility study for possible OTEC site off African continent • Investigation of planning activities required for OTEC deployment • Development of location specific requirements for area • Business/Financial plan for profitability in 30 years OTEC African Deployment

  4. OTEC Description • Oceanic Thermal Energy Conversion • OTEC utilizes the ocean’s 20ºC natural thermal gradient between the warm surface water and the cold deep sea water to drive a Rankine Cycle • OTEC utilizes the world’s largest solar radiation collector - the ocean. The ocean contains enough energy power all of the world’s electrical needs. OTEC African Deployment

  5. 5. Heat extraction from cold-water sink to condense the working fluid in the condenser. OTEC Process 4. Expanding vapor drive the turbine, and electricity is created by a generator Cycle begins again Return to step 2 2. Fluid pump pressurizes and pushes working fluid to evaporator 1. Power input to pumps to start process 3. Heat addition from the hot-water source used to evaporate the working fluid within the heat exchanger (Evaporator) OTEC African Deployment

  6. OTEC Project Development Process OTEC African Deployment

  7. Work Products House of Quality System Description Document Cost Model Business / Marketing Approach Risk Management Strategy Technology S-Curves System Architecture Views (SV-) Project Schedule CPN Simulation Model System Functionality Sequence Model OTEC African Deployment

  8. Stakeholder Needs Analysis Special Interest Groups Local Community Prioritized Stakeholder Needs Competitive Energy Cost Minimal Time to Market Replaces Non-renewable sources Adaptable to Future Markets Scalable Capacity • Environmental • African Sustainable Energy 5 • Citizens • Local Gov’t 3 OTEC System Design Team Competitors Related Engineering Characteristics 1 • Lockheed Martin • GMU SEOR Faculty • Partners / Subcontractors • Oil Industry • HydroPower Interfaces • Ocean Environment • Electric Company • Financing Group 4 2 Engineering Characteristics Evaluated using House of Quality OTEC African Deployment High Efficiency Components Utilize Commercial Components Subsystems powered by system power output Modular design for power producing systems

  9. Regulations & Standards • Platform Safety: • Maritime Safety (DOT, USCG 46 CFR) • Luminaries (UL 1598A) • Electrical Installations on Shipboard (IEEE P45.1, P45.5) • Designing & Construction of Floating Platforms (API RP 2FB) • Underwater Cabling: • Design & Construction (IEC 60092-350; NAVY OPNAV 11310.3B) • Sheathing (IEC 60092-351, -359) • Installation & Test (IEC 60092-350, -352; IEEE 45 INT 1-2) • Workforce Safety: • Job Hazard Analysis (OSHA 3071) • Workplace First Aid (OSHA 3317) • Hazardous Waste Operations (OSHA 3172) • Occupational Health & Safety (OSHA 29-CFR 1910.1) • Habitation on Offshore Installation (ABS Pub. 105) OTEC African Deployment

  10. Other Considerations • Supplier Qualification • Several key components to be sourced (Water Pump, Turbine, Generator, Heat Exchangers & Power Cabling) • Institution of Preferred Supplier Qualification System • Process/Product control plan to ensure quality components & participation in the auditing of their processes • Suppliers will be empowered - push high standards of quality to 2nd tier suppliers since their company reputation is at stake • Standards Based Procurement - ensure that even the 2nd tier vendors push for quality - end products delivered to the OTEC system have higher reliability • Integrated Logistics Support • Maintainability support for equipment • Support team to handle any questions/issues during program execution, with trained staff to deal with all situational needs OTEC African Deployment

  11. Trade Study Research OTEC African Deployment

  12. Sponsor Requirements • Location shall be located off the African coast • Humanitarian efforts strengthen US ties with African nations • Sponsor has not conducted in-depth research in this area • Africa is becoming a hot topic in Renewable Resources • Locations shall provide: • At least 20° C temperature difference between surface water and 1000 m deep water • Economic Stability • Political stability (reduces program risk) • Established power infrastructure to I/F with OTEC • Little or no coastal pirating crime OTEC African Deployment

  13. Africa Continent Overview • Over 500M people, yet 75% of landmass uninhabited • Highest birthrate of any continent with population expected to reach 2B by 2050 • Fastest growing region on earth – facing most serious problems of food and water • High potential for commercial OTEC plant off western coast • Political instability & poor infrastructure plague the continent OTEC African Deployment

  14. Possible OTEC Locations OTEC African Deployment

  15. Technical Case • Operational Concept • Scope and Context • Architecture Evaluation • Functional Decomposition • Architecture Development • DoDAF Diagrams • Executable Architecture OTEC African Deployment

  16. Operational Concept OTEC African Deployment

  17. OTEC System P-Diagram • (Noise Factors) • Temperature • Sea state • Weather • Corrosion OTEC System • (Output Functions) • Power • Water • (Input Signals) • Water • Startup Power • Controls • Water Pump • Fluid Pump • OTEC CPU • Turbine • Generator • Heat Exchangers • Pipes • Working fluid OTEC African Deployment

  18. Architecture Evaluation OTEC African Deployment Closed Cycle OTEC is the Most Feasible and Mature Approach

  19. Functional Decomposition OTEC African Deployment

  20. External Systems/Context Diagrams Context Diagram OTEC African Deployment

  21. OTEC IDEF0 OTEC African Deployment

  22. Architecture Development The Six Stage Process: Structured Analysis L. Wagenhals, A. Levis, SYST 621 OV-1, OV-4, OV-5 Business Strategy System Functional Mapping SV-3, SV-4, SV-5a SV-8, SV-9 Market Analysis Architecture Behavior OV-6C, SV-10 CPN Tools OTEC African Deployment

  23. DoDAF Diagrams • Utilized CORE v5 to develop DoDAF views • Developed applicable DoDAF diagrams for an interoperable architecture OTEC African Deployment

  24. OTEC System Requirements OTEC African Deployment

  25. Executable Architecture • Leads to significant new insights into the design and operation of the OTEC system • The structure CPN model is directly related to the functionality represented in the architecture Video Simulation OTEC African Deployment

  26. Executable Architecture Results • The executable CPN model provided additional input into the logical flow of the system • System Control function benefited the most from the model • How to can the system be adjusted to maintain optimum performance • How can the system be stopped in the event of an error • Led to additional requirements to perform control functionality OTEC African Deployment

  27. Market Analysis • World Energy Goals • Increase efficiency • Decrease dependence on foreign oil • Clean, Carbon Free Fuels • Renewable sources • Renewable Market Trends • Renewable energy market will grow at 431% in the next 10 years • Oil predictions at 26% and natural gas at 46%. Data Source: OPEC Oil Industry Driving Change due to Rapidly Rising Costs, Limited Resources and Political Instability in Major Supplying Countries OTEC African Deployment

  28. Investment Strategy Alternative Investment Strategies • First commercial plant in areas with high $/kWh • Investor may have funds up-front or financing agreement • Installation timing may impact subsystem technology choices • Utilize Patent process, proprietary markings, and legal teaming agreements Market Introduction HI Pilot OTEC Plant Commercial OTEC Plant Establish Investment Partner Sign PPA OTEC African Deployment

  29. Program Risks • 16 Risks identified in Risk Register • Each risk has a Risk Mitigation Strategy, Status, Probability, & Overall Risk Importance – calculated as the sum of Schedule, Cost and Performance Impact • Impact Scores are on a scale of ‘0’ (No Impact) to ‘10’ (Extremely High Impact) OTEC Program Risk R15 OTEC Program Risk Register OTEC African Deployment

  30. Affordability Calculations • Assumptions • 100 MW Capacity, 99% Uptime, 30 year Financing at 8% • Power Co. and Investor require 25% of income for internal costs • Sponsor sale price for system affordability: $307M Cash Flow Analysis • Discrete Chance Nodes • Sales Income Growth • O&M Cost Growth • Fixed Expenses • $307M Investment Net Present Value is $1.7B in 30 years OTEC African Deployment

  31. Growth Potential • Electricity Capacity Expansion • Additional OTEC systems could be installed • Current system could be upgraded to include more power modules • Clean Water System • Use the power created to create clean water • Install an “Open-Cycle” system to create both at once • Alternative Technology Solutions • Geo-OTEC to power Oil Platforms • Renewable Fuels – Ammonia as a Carbon Carrier • Agriculture – Ammonia as a fertilizer OTEC African Deployment

  32. Summary and Conclusions • Consider methods to reduce system cost, consider: • Sell directly to city to remove “middle-man” • Platform cost savings: less-robust design, shorter CWP • Recommend Africa installation after OTEC is ‘proven’ at large scale • Alternative technology approaches increase possible installation area to include colder water regions • Way Forward Recommendations • Meet early and often with environmental policy teams regarding licensing and permits to ensure compliance and a clear path ahead • Begin talks with Nigerian government to express interest in developing OTEC near Lagos; Establish a partnership with power distributor • Verify ocean temperatures & geography; Consider university research OTEC African Deployment

  33. Thank You • Lockheed Martin Corporation • Dr. Ted Johnson • Kiffin Bryan • GMU SEOR Faculty • Dr. Thomas Speller • Dr. Abbas K. Zaidi • Faculty Reviewers OTEC African Deployment

  34. Stakeholder Value Mapping OTEC African Deployment

  35. Quality Analysis House of Quality OTEC African Deployment

  36. Risk Register OTEC African Deployment

  37. OTEC African Deployment

  38. Project Plan • WBS Developed based on Project Guidance • Tasks organized and linked in MS Project OTEC African Deployment

  39. Architecture Development OTEC African Deployment L. Wagenhals, A. Levis, SYST 621 Lecture 8

  40. Technology S-Curves • Key technology Focus Areas • Cold Water Pipe • Turbine Technology Cold Water Pipe Turbine Technology OTEC African Deployment

  41. CPN Model OTEC African Deployment

  42. CPN Simulation Video http://mason.gmu.edu/~amccull1/files/OTEC_CPN_Simulation.wmv OTEC African Deployment