English Literature . History of English. Britannia . Different Celtic tribes lived in Briton ( Britanny ). (517 BC) Language was called Brythonic ( Celtic) Britons : Celtic tribes ( before Roman invasion )
History of English
Different Celtic tribes lived in Briton (Britanny).
(517 BC) Language was calledBrythonic (Celtic)
Britons: Celtic tribes (before Roman invasion)
Britains: Mix of Britons, Angles, Saxons and Norse (after Romans left)
GreatBritain part of the Roman Empire (55 BC -
Latinnames: plants, animals, food, drink, household items: win (wine), candel (candle), catte (cat).
Hadrian Wall: to protectBritainfrom tribes in the north
Town Names: Manchester (OE ceaster /Lat castrum/ camp)
Romans left GB to defend the mainland
Britain was attackedby:
Frisians (the Netherlands)
Celtsweredrivenoff to Wales, Ireland and Scotland
After the Anglo-Saxons had settled, Vikings (fromScandinavia) invadedEngland
787 AD – +/- 1000 AD
Danishcontrolled most of easternEngland. Danelaw: area of Englandthat was underDanishlaw.
1)SettlementswithDanishnames in England
- by = farm/town (Derby, Naseby)
- thorp = village (Linthorpe, althorp)
2)Increase in personalnames of Scandinavianorigin
3)General wordsentered the language
4)Personalpronoun system was affected : they, them, their
5) ON verb to beinstead of sindon
6) 3rd personsingular –s
1066Battle of Hastings: William the Conquerer (Normandy) seized the Englishthrone
language of court, monastries, merchantswhocrossed the channel.
Germanic invaders called Celts wealas (Welsh)
Celts called invaders Saxons (all of them)
End of 6th century term Angli. Aethelbert (601 AD) is called rex Anglorum (King of the Angles).
Name of the language Englisc. (sc = sh)
Englaland (Land of the Angles) not until 1000
Anglo-Saxon(Old English) is a Germaniclanguage and closelyrelated to Frisian, German and Dutch
e.g: Vater (G), father (E), vader (D)
Haus(G), house (E), huis (D) hus (Fris)
hwā – who hwænne - when
hwǽt – what hwelc – which
hwǽr – where hū - how
hwý – why
belīfan – blijven binnan – binnen
bītan – bijten blōd – bloed
brecan – breken bremel – braam
brōþor – broer buan – bouwen
bufan – boven ciele – kil
cīepan – kopen cild – kind
cirice – kerk cnapa – knaap
cwic – kwik cyning – koning
cyne-rīce – koningrijk dǽd – daad
dǽlen – delen dēaþ – dood
dēofol – duivel dēor – dier
dohtor – dochter draca – draak
duru – deur ēage – oog
ēare – oorearm – arm
earn – arendele – olie
ende – eind engel – engel
Engla-land – Engeland eorþe – aarde
Big influence of (old) Norse on OE language. Vikings brought ON to England. Usually 2 wordsfor 1 thing, somtimes OE sometimes ON orbothsurvived
ON eggvs OE ey OE pathvs ON reike
ON sister vs OE sweostor OE sorrowvs ON site
ON silvervs OE seolfor
ON sick & OE ill
ON skill & OE craft
ON anger & OE wrath
Little influence of Celtic languages driven away to Scotland, Wales and Ireland
During Roman invasion (butonly 200 words)
Christian missionariesbroughtLatinto society. Latinlanguage of religion and learningfrommonastriesgraduallyintoeverydaylife.
After 1066:Norman rule over England
Words: law, administration, medicine, art, fashion.
Fr and OE replace words or co-exist, but develop different meaning
house (OE) & mansion (F)
hearty (OE) & cordial (F)
Roman England: Christianspersecuteduntil 313 EmperorConstantinegrantedfreedom of worship to Christians.
SaxonEngland:Christianityvanishedexcept in Cornwall and Wales. 5th cent. Christianity spread to Ireland and Scotland = Celtic Church
7th cent. Rome sent missionaries to England. Roman Churchstartedconversion in South, Celtic Church in North
7th century: Pope sendsprieststo convert GB most kingsadoptChristianity monks,
priests and bishopsplayan important role in
Bede wrote a history of the Anglo-Saxons in LatintitledHistoriaEcclesiasticaGentisAnglorum
Growth of Christianity in England most valuablesourceforearlyEnglishhistory
OE literature : literaturewritten in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) frommid 5th century – 1066
Literaryagebeganafter the arrival of the Romans. In the monastriesLatinand OE textswerewritten.
First texts (700 AD) wereglossaries (LatinwordstranslatedintoEnglish)
Oldest OE manuscript composedorally in the 8th century, written down later by 2 different scribes.
Story takes place in 6th century
EpicPoem: narrativepoem (tells a story) containing details of heroicdeeds and events significant to a culture ornation.
Beowulf is a Scandinavian coming to the help of kingHrothgar (Danish) who is underattackbya monstroustroll, Grendel at the hall of Heorot (Hearts). Beowulf travelsfromGeatland (Sweden) and kills the monster.
In a second fight he kills the monster’s mother. Beowulf goes home and becomes king of the Geats. As an old man he kills a dragon in a fight that leads to his own death.
Notonlyfor entertainment, showed the thanes:
Anglo-Saxon society under the influence of Normannobility.
Structureof kings and warriorsdissappeared and was succeededbythe feudal system
mortality of Mankind
Magna Carta: 1215 King was forced to sign contract underwhich the nobilityweregrantedcertainpriviliges in return fortheirloyalty
HundredYears War: Englanddeclares war on France (1337)
Black Death: Plague
Fighting over the Englishcrownby House of York and House of Lancaster = War of the Roses
Richard III defeated and killed by Henry VII.
New dynasty: The Tudors (1483-1603).