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Floral and Nursery Crop Research Initiative Researchers Meeting March 25, 2003. Minimizing Inputs for Optimal Floriculture and Nursery Crop Pest Management. Kevin M. Heinz & Fred Davies Departments of Entomology & Horticultural Sciences Texas A&M University, College Station.

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minimizing inputs for optimal floriculture and nursery crop pest management

Floral and Nursery Crop Research Initiative

Researchers Meeting

March 25, 2003

Minimizing Inputs for Optimal Floriculture and Nursery Crop Pest Management

Kevin M. Heinz & Fred Davies

Departments of Entomology & Horticultural Sciences

Texas A&M University, College Station

slide2

Project Overview

  • Fit relative to entire program
  • Project accomplishments - Entomology
  • Tangibles
  • Future directions
slide3

PESP

Sampling

AFE

IPM

ARS

Inputs

NRI

Thrips BC

Project Position

slide4

Texas Agriculture

  • 80% of Texans reside in urban areas
  • Urban and suburban areas compete for limited resource - WATER
  • Need for reduced inputs in an arid state
slide5

Texas Problems?

  • The Texas Department of Agriculture issued 1331 stop sale orders to Texas greenhouse and nursery growers (1996 – 2000)
  • 98.8% were issued for the occurrence of pest insects.

Texas Department of Agriculture - Unpublished

slide6

Inputs and Pest Management

  • Reducing inputs will reduce plant quality
  • Reducing inputs will reduce insect problems
  • At high inputs, prophylactic applications of insecticides
  • Reduce inputs, reduce insecticides, retain plant quality
slide7

Inputs and Pest Management

  • Chrysanthemum as model
  • Nitrogen as first input measure
  • Study three insects: aphids, thrips, leafminers
  • Assess population dynamics, pesticide applications, and plant quality at varying input levels
slide8

Inputs and Pest Management

  • Heinz - Entomology
  • Davies - Horticulture
  • Bográn – Plant Pathology (& extension)
slide9

Project Overview

  • Fit relative to entire program
  • Project accomplishments – Entomology

November 2000 – March 2003

  • Tangibles
  • Future directions
slide10

Aphid Population Growth

Nitrogen

ppm N

Chamber

N = 6

Greenhouse

N = 10

0 19.83 296.50

19 53.50 472.17

38 209.17 616.50

75 570.00 833.33

375 803.17 868.33

slide12

Thrips Population Growth

Nitrogen

ppm N

Chamber

N = 6

Greenhouse

N = 10

0 19.50 35.80

19 179.33

38 181.67 71.80

75 268.00 137.10

375 449.00 352.10

slide13

Insecticide Applications

Orthene

N = 5

Talstar

N = 5

Nitrogen

ppm N

Conserve

N = 5

Control

N = 5

0 0.80 0.80 0.80

75 1.20 1.80 1.80

375 1.20 2.80 3.00

slide14

Thrips Densities

Orthene

N = 5

Talstar

N = 5

Nitrogen

ppm N

Conserve

N = 5

Control

N = 5

0 18.20 8.20 11.40 8.60

75 17.40 20.00 19.60 25.00

375 6.60 24.00 22.60 72.00

slide15

Proportion Flower Damage

Orthene

N = 5

Talstar

N = 5

Nitrogen

ppm N

Conserve

N = 5

Control

N = 5

0 0.55 0.40 0.64 0.20

75 0.20 0.39 0.21 0.17

375 0.22 0.22 0.13 0.32

slide16

Plant Height

Orthene

N = 5

Talstar

N = 5

Nitrogen

ppm N

Conserve

N = 5

Control

N = 5

0 16.26 16.26 15.98 15.16

75 21.76 22.92 21.56 20.90

375 20.64 23.36 21.56 22.24

slide17

Leaves Per Plant

Orthene

N = 5

Talstar

N = 5

Nitrogen

ppm N

Conserve

N = 5

Control

N = 5

0 60.20 57.80 56.40 51.20

75 168.80 166.40 185.80 154.20

375 180.60 175.80 204.40 204.40

slide18

Opened Flowers Per Plant

Orthene

N = 5

Talstar

N = 5

Nitrogen

ppm N

Conserve

N = 5

Control

N = 5

0 5.00 5.40 5.60 4.40

75 23.40 24.60 23.80 21.40

375 25.80 26.60 25.00 29.40

slide19

Project Overview

  • Fit relative to entire program
  • Project accomplishments - Entomology
  • Tangibles
  • Future directions
slide20

Tangibles

  • Demonstrate capability to produce quality chrysanthemums with reduced inputs.
  • Preparing students for the industry (Karol Burns, Carlos Bográn, undergraduate interns)
  • Growth in TAES/TCE faculty with ornamentals emphasis (Carlos Bográn, Scott Ludwig)
slide21

Fertility Affects on Chrysanthemum × Aphid Interactions: Influences on Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, Ethylene Evolution and Herbivore Abundance

Fred Davies

Chuanjiu He

Amanda Chau

Kevin Heinz

slide22

Host Plant/Crop: Greenhouse mum ‘Charm’

Biotic Stress:Aphids

Abiotic Stress: Fertility

Objectives:Determining fertility and aphid influence

on plant growth & development and herbivore (NO PESTICIDE STRESSES ADDED)

Treatments: 2  aphid levels x 5 fertility levels = 10 trts.

slide24

Quick Rinse of Aphid Exudate

Bottom Middle Apical

slide25

Total Plant DM (g)

Fertility Level (ppm N)

slide26

Total Bud DM (g)

0 19 38 75 375

Fertility Level (ppm N)

slide27

Leaf DM (g)

Fertility Level (ppm N)

slide28

Total Leaf Area (cm2)

0 19 38 75 375

Fertility Level (ppm N)

slide29

Specific Leaf Area (cm2 g-1)

Fertility Level (ppm N)

slide30

Ethylene Production Rate

(pmol g-1 FW h-1)

Buds Young Phys. Mat Old

Leaf Leaf Leaf

slide31

Pn (mol CO2 m-2 s-1)

Young Phys. Mat Old

Leaf Leaf Leaf

slide32

Young Leaves

N (%)

Phys. Mat Leaves

0 19 38 75 375

Fertility Level (ppm N)

slide33

Aphids No.

Fertility Level (ppm N)

slide34

Summary:

  • REDUCED PLANT QUALITY: Aphids depressed plant vegetative and reproductive growth, and altered carbohydrate partitioning at high fertility.
  • Aphid inoculated (AI) plants at high fertility had increased specific leaf area [(SLA), i.e. thinner leaves] and greater leaf area than aphid-free (NonAI) plants.
  • Aphids caused greater ethylene production in reproductive buds and young leaves of high fertility plants, but had no effect on ethylene evolution in physiologically mature or older - basal leaves.
slide35

Summary (con.):

  • AI plants had lower leaf N than NonAI treatments.
  • Aphids reduced photosynthesis in young leaves of high fertility plants, whereas physiologically mature and older leaves were unaffected.
  • Aphid abundance was greatest at high fertility.
  • A higher proportion of aphids were observed in physiologically mature and older leaves at low fertility, whereas at high fertility young leaves had 33% more aphids than older, basal leaves.
slide36

Application to Stakeholders

    • The morphology and physiological status of chrysanthemum determines its susceptibility to aphids.
    • Aphids increase ethylene, decrease net photosynthesis, and decrease carbon allocation to leaves and reproductive structures, particularly at higher fertility.
    • While growing plants under deficient fertility levels is not a satisfactory strategy for reducing insect pests, reducing fertility and pesticide levels and producing healthier, less stress susceptible plants is a realistic endeavor for best management practices (BMP) and IPM systems.
slide38

Future

  • One More Insect Herbivore - Leafminers.
  • Increase Resolution of Reduced Inputs.
  • IPM approach to include biological control.
  • Demonstrations in Commercial Greenhouses.
  • Incorporation of Plant Pathogen Management.
  • Inclusion of Water and Water × Nutrient Stresses.