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Prof. Dubiński Józef Central Mining Institute Katowice, POLAND E N E R G Y Green energy from coal as important element of long term energy security of supply for Europe
ASSUMPTIONS • Climate change is a serious threat that willhave significant impact worldwide, including Europe. • Emission of carbon dioxide CO2 of EU countries • is annually about 4 000 Mt and one half is • connected with power generation. • Therefore emission, especially thoseof • greenhouse gases, must to be reduced. • Assuming energy dependency on fossil fuels, • the development and deployment of clean fossil • fuel technologies will be a critical issue in the • transition to a sustainable energy future.
China - 11,6% North America 26,0% Australia - 9,3% Asia9,1% South and Central America - 2,0% Africa- 6,0% Europe - 12,4% Former Soviet Union- 23,6% Coal reserves showing regional shares (at end of 2003)
Global structure of the reserves of basic fossil carriers of primary energy, % [ in re-count on toe] Oil 15,2% Gas 14,8% Hard coal & lignite 70%
COAL FACTS • Coal is mined commercially in over 50 countries and is used in over 70. • Coal plays a vital role in power generation – currently fuels 39% of the world’s electricity and this proportion is expected to remain at similar levels over the next 30 years. • The world currently consumes over 4 050 Mt of coal. • Much of global coal production is used in the country in • which it was produced, only around 18% of hard • coal production is destined for the international coal • market. • Global coal production is expected to reach 7 000 Mt • in 2030. Steam coal production is projected to have • reached around 5 200 Mt ; coking coal 624 Mt ; and • brown coal 1 200 Mt .
EU countries are serious consumer of coal : • Hard coal 351,45 Mt • Lignite 407,93 Mt • ---------------- • Total : 759,38 Mt • Import of hard coal : 165 Mt Import dependency for energy sources (gas, oil, coal) of EU countries is about 50% now and is expected to increase up to 70% in 2030 Source : IEA, 2004
Coal resources in EU countries Source : EU Energy and Transport in Figures, Eirostat, 2003 Source : IEA, 2004
Positive attributes of coal • Coal reservesare very large and will be available for the foreseeable future without raising geopolitical or safety issues. • Coal is readily available from a wide variety of sources in a well-supplied world market. • Coal can be easily stored at power stations andstocks can be drawn on in emergencies. • Coal – based power is not dependent on the weather and can be used as a backup for wind and hydropower. • Coal does not need high pressure pipelines or dedicated supply routes. • Coal supply routes do not need to be protected at enormous expense.
Negative attributes of coal • Coal mining can a significant impact on the environment • (land disturbances, subsidence, water pollution, dust and noise • pollution, ect.). • Coal combustion releases emission of such pollutants as : • - oxides of sulphur and nitrogen (SOX and NOX), • - trace elements, such as mercury. • Impact of coal using on the global warming effect • - methane CH4from coal mines • (Methane is a potent greenhouse gas – it is estimated to • account for 18% of the overall global warming effect arising • from human activities) • - carbon dioxide CO2 emissions from coal combustion when coal • is used in electricity generation or industrial processes • (CO2 contribution in the overall global warming effect arising • from human activities is estimated to contribute 50%).
Major sources of methane emissions Source : IEA, 2004
Major sources of CO2 emissions Transport (cars) Agriculture Sources : Hydrocarbons combustion Water evaporation 81% Sources : Coal combustion 19% Source : IEA, 2004
CO2 emission from fossil fuels Source : IEA, 2004
Structure of gas emission during coal combustion Carbon dioxide CO2 55% Methane CH4 15% Nitrogen oxides NOX 6% Others 24%
Green coal means that majority or wholecarbon dioxide CO2 rising during using of coal (electricitygenerationor industrial processes) should be separated andsequestreted. Technological Response is necessary • European Technological Platform for Zero Emission Fossil • Fuel Power Generation (ETP ZEFFPP) • - Advisory Council is established and several working meetingshave taken place, • Vision Paper (VP) has been elaborated • Key outputs of the ETP will be : • 1. Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) – the way forward for • Europein this area for the immediate timeframe and out • to 2030+, • 2. Deployment Strategy (DS) – how the technology will • bedeployedinto the market place.
THE KEY PROBLEMS OF ZERO EMISSION FOSSIL FUEL POWER GENERATION • Significant enhancement of the efficiency of the conversion process from fuel to electricity (including Clean Coal Technologies) - increase of maximum process temperatures for establishedprocesses, - improvement of components, - development of new processes and systems. • CO2 Capture and Storage – technology for future - cost effective CO2 capture including incorporation into power generation cycles, - safe and reliable CO2 transportation infrastructure, - safe and reliable use and storage of CO2. A joint critical mass research, development, demonstration and deployment program of industry, science within the EU should open up the opportunity for Europe to take a lead in clean fossil energy.
F E N C O ERA – NET acronim: „ Fossil Energy Coalition” Title of project „Promotion of an Integrated European and National R&D Initiative for Fossil Energy Technologies towards Zero Emission Power Plant • 16 partners and subcontractors. • The initiative group of FENCO ERA - NET : • - Forschungszentrum Jülich – Germany – co-ordinator • - Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Arbeit – Germany • - Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) – Great Britain • - Future Energy Solution – Great Britain Project is scheduled for 4 years Start : July 2005
Prof. Dubiński Józef Central Mining Institute Katowice, POLAND Thank you for attention