Instrument Contamination Levels: • 1. _______________ • 2. _____________________ • 3. _____________________
Critical Instruments • _______________________________________________ • Ex. Forceps, scalpels, scalers, dental burs After each use: • _________________all these instruments
Semi-Critical Instruments • __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • mirrors, amalgam condensers, x-ray film and digital sensor holders and high and low speed handpieces • Use high-level disinfection with all lab materials used in the mouth After each use: • Sterilize all that are heat resistant • Use disposable items or high-level disinfection/cold sterilant on others ***Do not reprocess or reuse any disposable items!
Non-Critical Instruments • _______________________________________________________________________ • Ex. X-ray Heads, Light handles, BP cuff • Use intermediate or low level disinfection agent • Floors and walls: okay to clean if no blood contamination • If an item is visibly contaminated with blood, choose intermediate level disinfection
Transporting Items to Sterilization Center ____________________for used instruments: Transport contaminated Instruments from the point of use in a ____________________ to the initial receiving area of the sterilization area • In operatory or (more commonly) sterilization center • Enzymatic properties • ________________________________________________________________
Instrument Processing Area • DHCP should process all instruments in a designated central processing area to more easily control quality and ensure safety (248). The central processing area should be divided into sections for 1) receiving, cleaning, and decontamination; 2) preparation and packaging; 3) sterilization; and 4) storage. Ideally, walls or partitions should separate the sections to control traffic flow and contain contaminants generated during processing. When physical separation of these sections cannot be achieved, adequate spatial separation might be satisfactory if the DHCP who process instruments are trained in work practices to prevent contamination of clean areas (248). Space should be adequate for the volume of work anticipated and the items to be stored (248). Which do you think is the correct choice? #2 is CORRECT! 1 2
_________________________ • Instrument processing area • well-designed and conducive to accomplishing the multiple steps to achieve sterilization or high-level disinfection. ____________:receiving and decontaminatingrinsingdryingpackaging _______________:sterilizationsterile storage
_________________ • ________________________________ • remove bioburden from instruments • Place dental burs in a bur basket before placing them in the ultrasonic cleaner • Mechanical methods • _______________________ • ___________________ (ultrasonic sounds waves create bubbles that implode cause an unseen scrubbing action) • 10 minutes • Change solutions daily • Aluminum Foil test • __________________
BE CAREFUL! DO THIS! NOT THIS!
________________________ • Require special handling due to internal mechanical parts • Flush for ________________at chairside • Remove bur • Clean outer surface with handpiece wipe • Lubricate according to manufacturer’s instructions • Wipe off excess lubricant • Package and heat sterilize • Some handpieces must be lubricated after sterilization; check manufacturer’s directions Manual and automatic methods are available
Packaging _______________________ _________________________ Plastic or metal Perforated so steam can penetrate Less instrument handling reduces risk of percutaneous injury Can go into ultrasonic and autoclave Must be wrapped for autoclave and storage • Permeable so steam can reach instruments • Appropriate for specific sterilizer
Loading the Sterilizers • Wrap securely • Hinged instruments open • Do not overfill
Methods of Sterilization: • Process by which all forms of organic life are destroyed by physical or chemical means • Steam under pressure Autoclave • Dry Heat Sterilization • Chemical under pressure (Chemical Autoclave or Chemiclave) • EPA registered disinfectant/sterilant; also called “cold sterilization” least preferred method • Always best to use heat sterilization
Monitoring the Sterilizer • __________________ • Treated indicator (inside package) or tape (outside package) • Indicates that items have gone through the sterilization process • DOES NOT GUARANTEE STERILITY • _________________________(weekly per CDC) • Live bacterial spores • Autoclaves/chemical vapor: • Bacillus Stearothermophilusor GeobacillusStearothermophillus • Dry heat/ethylene oxide: • Bacillus Subtilisor bacillus atrophaeus • ____________________________ • Monitor gauges for times, temperatures, cycles • Check and keep print-outs if available
Storage • Keep sterile items and disposable items • Covered, enclosed area (not under a sink) • Keep packages/cassettes wrapped and unopened until use • Do you need to re-sterilize? • Per CDC, wrapped items are sterile indefinitely • Re-sterilize if it becomes contaminated (i.e. wet, torn) • Some offices date each package and rotate use according to dates