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Half Lifes. Atoms. Proton Electron Cloud Neutron. Atomic Number. Number of protons – change this → change the element Hydrogen has one proton and one electron Atomic number = 1 Uranium has 92 of each Atomic number …. Isotopes!. Have to deal with number of neutrons in

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Presentation Transcript
atoms
Atoms
  • Proton
  • Electron Cloud
  • Neutron
atomic number
Atomic Number
  • Number of protons – change this → change the element
  • Hydrogen has one proton

and one electron

  • Atomic number = 1
  • Uranium has 92 of each
  • Atomic number …
isotopes
Isotopes!
  • Have to deal with

number of neutrons in

the nucleus

  • For the most part Hydrogen atoms have no neutrons but…
  • Deuterium has one neutron in the nucleus
  • 1/6,000 Hydrogen atoms is Deuterium
atomic mass number
Atomic Mass Number
  • Neutral but do add mass to the nucleus
  • The atomic mass number indicates the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  • Carbon 14 (6 protons and 8 neutrons)
radioactive decay
Radioactive Decay
  • Unstable Nuclei sometimes decay
  • Types of decay
    • Alpha Decay, Beta Decay, Electron Capture
  • Uranium-238 – alpha decay ejects a helium nucleus leaving Thorium -234
    • Atomic number is changed – new element
radioactive decay1
Radioactive Decay
  • Carbon-14 (6 protons, 8 neutrons) decays by emitting an electron when neutron → proton
    • Daughter isotope has 7 protons and 7 Neutrons
    • Nitrogen-14
    • Beta Decay
half life
Half life
  • Atoms can decay in a predictable way
  • The time it would take for half of the atoms of a sample to decay
half life example
Half life example
  • Suppose we find a rock with a mass of 100 grams that is entirely carbon-14
  • Carbon 14 decays to Nitrogen 14 with a half life of 5730 years
  • This means that after this amount of time our rock will contain 50 grams of carbon 14 and 50 grams of Nitrogen 14
  • After an additional 5730 years we’ll have 25 grams of carbon 14 and 75 grams of Nitrogen 14