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Linear organization

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  1. Organizing Your Speech Linear organization

  2. Overview The organization of the body of the speech The Introduction The conclusion

  3. Why do we Organize Speeches Effective organization helps public speakersby simplifying content preparation. -- To get started, choose an organizational pattern. -- Develop a list of main points. -- Increase speaker’s credibility and confidence (i.e. focusing on delivery rather than recall).

  4. Why do we Organize Speeches Effective organization helps listeners. -- Helps listeners understand, remember, and listen to speech. (clear logics, links, transitional words…) -- Allows listeners to enjoy the message, rather than struggle to follow it.

  5. Guidelines for Organizing your Content Step 1: Develop the body of your speech first.Decide upon the major ideas you’ll highlight in your speech and then go back and introduce them effectively. Step 2: Clearly state your central idea, which provides the backbone for your speech.

  6. Make sure your supporting materials are directly relevant to the main points There are several reasons why people immigrate to the United States. Over the years, millions of people have immigrated to the United States Many people immigrate in the search of economic opportunity. Others immigrate to attain political freedom. Still others immigrate to escape religious persecution.

  7. Guidelines for Organizing your Content Step 3: Limit your number of main points. Using more than five points will make it difficult for you and your audience to remember your message. Limit yourself to the number of points you can fully develop and remember during your speech. Keeping your number of points low will help your audience recall your main points.

  8. Point + proof, proof, proof Make a logical argument Easy to follow Best with 3 points

  9. Tips for Preparing Main Points Write your main points in as few words as possible. Use parallel main points to help yourself and audience members recall your main points.

  10. Tips for Preparing Main Points Keep main points separate. Balance the amount of time devoted to main points.

  11. Tips for Preparing Main Points Try to use the same pattern of wording for main points

  12. Guidelines for Organizing your Content Step 4: Organize your points in a logical sequence. Arrange your ideas in an order that make sense. E.g., job skill  contacts  job opportunities Step 5: Identify your sources.

  13. Organization Patterns for Informative Speech Chronological Geographical/Space sequence Cause and effect Topical Formula or gimmick Some organizational patterns can also be used for persuasive speeches

  14. Chronological Used to discuss a series of events that happened in order.

  15. Geographical or Space Sequence Use this pattern to -- Discuss your main points based on physical proximity. -- Describe a place or an object. e.g., “Today, we’ll take a tour of the country’s national parks, from the west to the east coast.”

  16. Cause and Effect Highlighting causes of a problem and discussing their effects. E.g.,

  17. Topical Use when you want to take a broad topic and divide it into categories, e.g.,

  18. Formula or Gimmick Helpful for improving memory by spelling a word with the first letter of each main topic, e.g., Or, begin each point with the same letter, e.g., -- The four C’s of diamonds include: cut, clarity, color, and carat.

  19. Four Persuasive Organizational Patterns Pattern #1: Pro-con: recognize the counter argument and impress your audience with a compelling argument for the other side of the issue. -- Use stronger evidence for one side. -- Attack the other side of the issue.

  20. Pattern #2 Problem-Solution

  21. Pattern #3 Elimination–Order Pattern Describe possible solutions and eliminate all but yours, and explain why only your solution will successfully solve the problem.

  22. Pattern #4 Formula or Gimmick (窍门) Helpful for improving memory by spelling a word with the first letter of each main topic, e.g., Or, begin each point with the same letter, e.g., -- The four C’s of diamonds include: cut, clarity, color, and carat.

  23. Monroe's motivated sequence • Monroe‘s motivated sequence is a technique for organizing persuasivespeeches that inspire people to take action. It was developed in the mid-1930s by Alan H. Monroe at Purdue University. It consists of five steps. • The advantage of Monroe's Motivated Sequence is that it emphasizes what the audience can do. Too often the audience feels like a situation is hopeless; Monroe's motivated sequence emphasizes the action the audience can take.

  24. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Commercials, editorials, and political speeches often use this technique. Five steps: ANSVA -- Attention: Visualize or show how serious a problem is. -- Need: Explain why the audience should be concerned with a particular problem and why they should change a belief, attitude, or behavior. -- Satisfaction: Explain how your solution will address the problem or need. -- Visualization: Motivate audience with a mental picture and solution. -- Action: Advise ways to change by providing instructions

  25. Evaluation of an Introduction Capture your audience’s attention (9 strategies); State your purpose and topic (see an example); Establish relevance to your audience (see an example); Build your credibility/authority over your topic (e.g., personal experience and/or extensive research); Transition into the body of your speech (see an example). Set your tone (i.e., lighthearted or serious); Preview your main points (a map to navigate the speech with all the major points); Remember: A good introduction should be between 45 and 60 seconds or accounts for 10-20% of your speech.

  26. 1. Capture your audience’s attention (9 strategies) Open with a quote (brief, relevant, & easy to link your topic). Use a startling fact/stats (to focus your audience’s attention on your topic). Begin with a question (either rhetorical or direct). Refer to a current event (to increase audience’s interest). Tell a story/anecdote about yourself to others (to gain audience’s interest and familiarity). Perform a demonstration to connect your audience nonverbally (Alert: don’t distract from it or frighten your audience). Refer to a literary material (by concisely discussing a relevant character, book, or reading a short poem). Use humor (to make your audience laugh, feel alert, relax, and/or develop positive feeling; avoid using offensive humors). Create suspense verbally or nonverbally (to increase audience’s curiosity).

  27. 2. State your purpose and topic

  28. 3. Establish relevance to your audience How can you make date rape a relevant issue for all your audience (both males and females)? -- Explain the frequency of date rape occurrences (e.g., one out of four college female students in U.S.). -- Mention that anyone is a potential victim, including the friends and families of the audience members (e.g., mother, sister, girlfriend/boyfriend). -- Discuss the consequence of being accused of date rape (e.g., short-term and long-term trauma).

  29. 4. Build your credibility/authority over your topic I started lifting weight when I was in high school, and I have kept at it for the past eight years. I have been interested in the history of the civil rights movements for several years, and I have read a number of books and articles about it. The information I am going to share with you today comes mostly from my biology class and an interview with Reyna Vasquez of the local Audubon Society. *Whatever the source of your expertise, be sure to let the audience know.

  30. 5. Transition into the body of your speech

  31. Examples of Questions Examples: Direct: Do you know how many small businesses are started each year in China? Please show your hand if you know. Rhetorical: Have you ever spent a sleepless night studying for an exam? Can you remember rushing to finish a term paper because you waited too long to star writing it? Do you often feel overwhelmed by all the things you have to get done at school? At work? At home? If so, you may be the victim of poor time management. Fortunately, there are proven strategies you can follow to use your time more effectively and to keep control of your life. Avoid asking embarrassing questions, e.g., “How many of you cheated on your romantic partners?”

  32. Example of Suspense Example: Each of you has a gift. What kind of gift is it? It’s not a Christmas gift or a birthday gift. It’s not some special talent or skill. It’s a gift that could save a life—maybe more than one. If you decide to give it, you lose nothing. Some people bury their gift. Others burn it. All but one of you who completed my questionnaire would gladly receive the gift, but only 20 percent of you have decided to give it. This gift is the donation of your vital organs when you die.

  33. Evaluation of a Conclusion

  34. Example of Conclusion Speech topic: Why the audience should vote? Step 1: Recap your major points. E.g., closing statement: “You should vote because voting is your basic civil right. It’s your responsibility as a citizen, and it’s your one avenue for affecting public policy.” Step 2: Motivate listener’s involvement (“what do I want my audience to take from my speech?”) E.g., “You might think one vote doesn’t count, but you’re wrong. Remember, in the 2000 presidential election, fewer than 1,000 votes separated the winner from the loser. It could have been your vote.”

  35. The model The introduction Start the speech. Get attention and interest. Thesis One sentence to tell your point. Preview Three main points without the details. Body This accounts 90% of the whole speech. Problem---cause--- solution. Summary Use past tense. You tell what you told them. Conclusion Address your introduction (go back to the beginning).

  36. Assignment What is your definition of success? What contributes to success (think of at least 6 factors)? What are the qualities and characteristics successful people share? Read chapters concerning informative speech for the next session.