Download
altered cellular and tissue biology n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology

Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology

451 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology Chapter 2

  2. Cellular Adaptation • Physiologic vs. pathogenic • Atrophy • Hypertrophy • Hyperplasia • Metaplasia • Dysplasia

  3. Cellular Adaptation

  4. Cellular Adaptation

  5. Cellular Adaptation

  6. Cellular Injury • Reversible • Irreversible

  7. Cellular Injury Mechanisms • Hypoxic injury • Ischemia • Anoxia • Cellular responses • Decrease in ATP, causing failure of sodium-potassium pump and sodium-calcium exchange • Cellular swelling • Reperfusion injury

  8. Cellular Injury Mechanisms • Free radicals and reactive oxygen species • Electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron • Lipid peroxidation • Alteration of proteins • Alteration of DNA • Mechanisms for the inactivation of free radicals

  9. Cellular Injury Mechanisms • Chemical injury • Lead • Carbon monoxide • Ethanol • Mercury • Social or street drugs

  10. Unintentional and Intentional Injuries • Blunt force injuries • Application of mechanical energy to the body resulting in the tearing, shearing, or crushing of tissues • Contusion vs. hematoma • Abrasion • Laceration • Fractures

  11. Contusions and Hematomas

  12. Unintentional and Intentional Injuries • Sharp force injuries • Incised wounds • Stab wounds • Puncture wounds • Chopping wounds

  13. Unintentional and Intentional Injuries

  14. Unintentional and Intentional Injuries • Gunshot wounds • Entrance wounds • Contact range entrance wound • Intermediate range entrance wound • Tattooing and stippling • Indeterminate range entrance wound • Exit wounds • Shored exit wound

  15. Gunshot Wounds

  16. Unintentional and Intentional Injuries • Asphyxial injuries • Caused by a failure of cells to receive or use oxygen • Suffocation • Strangulation • Hanging, ligature, and manual strangulation • Chemical asphyxiants • Drowning

  17. Infectious Injury • Pathogenicity of a microorganism • Virulence of a microorganism • Disease-producing potential • Invasion and destruction • Toxin production • Production of hypersensitivity reactions

  18. Immunologic and Inflammatory Injury • Phagocytic cells • Immune and inflammatory substances • Histamine, antibodies, lymphokines, complement, and enzymes • Membrane alterations

  19. Injurious Genetic Factors • Nuclear alterations • Alterations in the plasma membrane structure, shape, receptors, or transport mechanisms • Examples • Sickle cell anemia and muscular dystrophy

  20. Injurious Nutritional Imbalances • Essential nutrients are required for cells to function normally • Deficient intake • Excessive intake

  21. Temperature Extremes • Hypothermic injury • Slows cellular metabolic processes • Hyperthermic injury • Heat cramps • Heat exhaustion • Heatstroke

  22. Atmospheric Pressure Changes • Sudden increases or decreases in atmospheric pressure • Blast injury • Decompression sickness or caisson disease • “The bends”

  23. Ionizing Radiation • Any form of radiation capable of removing orbital electrons from atoms • X-rays, gamma rays, alpha and beta particles • Mechanism of damage • Effects of ionizing radiation

  24. Ionizing Radiation

  25. Cellular Injury • Illumination injury • Eyestrain, obscured vision, and cataract formation • Caused by light modulation • Mechanical stresses • Physical impact or irritation • Noise • Acoustic trauma and noise-induced hearing loss

  26. Manifestations of Cellular Injury • Cellular accumulations (infiltrations) • Water • Lipids and carbohydrates • Glycogen • Proteins

  27. Hydropic Degeneration

  28. Manifestations of Cellular Injury • Cellular accumulations (infiltrations) • Pigments • Melanin, hemoproteins, bilirubin • Calcium • Urate

  29. Calcium Infiltration

  30. Cellular Death • Necrosis • Sum of cellular changes after local cell death and the process of cellular autodigestion • Processes • Karyolysis • Nuclear dissolution and chromatin lysis • Pyknosis • Clumping of the nucleus • Karyorrhexis • Fragmentation of the nucleus

  31. Cellular Death

  32. Necrosis • Coagulative necrosis • Kidneys, heart, and adrenal glands • Protein denaturation

  33. Coagulative Necrosis

  34. Necrosis • Liquefactive necrosis • Neurons and glial cells of the brain • Hydrolytic enzymes

  35. Liquefactive Necrosis

  36. Necrosis • Caseous necrosis • Tuberculous pulmonary infection • Combination of coagulative and liquefactive necrosis

  37. Caseous Necrosis

  38. Necrosis • Fat necrosis • Breast, pancreas, and other abdominal organs • Action of lipases

  39. Fat Necrosis

  40. Necrosis • Gangrenous necrosis • Clinical term • Dry vs. wet gangrene • Gas gangrene

  41. Gangrenous Necrosis

  42. Apoptosis • Programmed cellular death • Mechanisms • Necrosis vs. apoptosis

  43. Apoptosis

  44. Aging and Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology • Aging vs. disease • Normal life span • Gender differences

  45. Theories of Aging • Accumulation of injurious events • Genetically controlled program • Theories • Genetic and environmental lifestyle factors • Alterations of cellular control mechanisms • Degenerative extracellular changes

  46. Theories of Aging

  47. Aging • Cellular aging • Tissue and systemic aging • Frailty

  48. Somatic Death • Death of an entire person • Postmortem changes • Algor mortis • Livor mortis • Rigor mortis • Postmortem autolysis