Formal Amendment Process Chapter 3 section 2
The framers of the Constitution realized that, inevitably, changes would have to be made in the document they wrote. Article V provides for the process of formal amendment. To this point, 27 amendments have been added to the Constitution. Not many changes for a document that is over 200 years old.
Method 1 • Proposed by 2/3 in each house of Congress and ratified by ¾ of state legislators • 38 states needed to pass an amendment
Formal Amendment Process • The four different ways by which amendments may be added to the Constitution are shown here: 1 3 Chapter 3, Section 2
Method 2 • Proposed by Congress and ratified by ¾ of the state conventions • Only one amendment has been ratified • 21st amendment
Section 2—Formal Amendment • Formal Amendment Process (cont.) • Proposed Amendments (cont.) • 10,000 amendment proposals have been submitted. • Only 33 have been sent to the states and only 27 ratified. Six failed: • One proposed in 1789 with the Bill of Rights died. • One offered in 1789 became the 27th (Congressional Compensation). • 1810-foreign titles void citizenship. • 1861-no slavery amendments. • 1924 an act to regulate child labor. • 1972 Equal Rights Amendment by 1984 fell short. • 1978 representation for the District of Columbia • A 7 year time limit for enactment started in 1917 (ERA in 1979 was given a 3 year extension).
Section 2—Formal Amendment • The 27 Amendments (cont.) • The Later Amendments (cont.) • The 18th in 1919 prohibited alcohol and was repealed by the 21st in 1933.. • The 19th in 1920 granted women the vote. • The 22nd in 1951 limited the presidency to two terms. • The 25th in 1967 deals with presidential succession. • The 26th in 1971 granted the vote to all over 18. • The 27th in 1992 prohibits congressional raises during the “current” term.
Amendments to the Constitution 1 3 Chapter 3, Section 2
Third Method • An amendment may be proposed by a national convention called by 2/3 of Congress • It must then be ratified by ¾ of the State legislatures • To this point, Congress has not called such a convention
Fourth Method • An amendment may be proposed by a national convention and ratified by conventions in ¾ of the states • The Constitution itself was adopted this way
Questions • What is the first method of amending the Constitution? • How many amendments were done that way? • What were the Bill of Rights? • Name four other amendments.