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The Global Environment. Chapter 1. Geography. What is it?. Geography. The study of where: People Places Things ARE LOCATED AND how they relate to each other. Ancient Egypt. Egyptian Priests Studied the land Why? Land uses What the land could produce

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  • What is it?
  • The study of where:
    • People
    • Places
    • Things
        • AND how they relate to each other.
ancient egypt
Ancient Egypt
  • Egyptian Priests
    • Studied the land
      • Why?
        • Land uses
        • What the land could produce
        • Base a tax system off of the land – supported building their temples
  • First to create maps of Europe, Africa, and Asia.
5 themes of geography
5 Themes of Geography
  • Location
  • Place
  • Interaction between people and environment
  • Movement
  • Region
  • Where is Penncrest High School?
  • On a sheet of loose leaf try to explain to someone where is the location of Penncrest High School
  • Turn to a neighbor and see how much your explanation is helpful.
  • Rate your partner’s explanation: 10 being very helpful, 1 being not helpful at all, and 5 being probably helpful.
relative location
Relative Location
  • Did we:
    • Describe PHS in terms of another location?
    • How else did we describe it?
    • How do we determine its EXACT or ABSOLUTE location?
absolute location
  • Use grid of numbered lines of latitude and longitude.
  • Penncrest is located at:
    • 39 degrees, 30” N
    • 75 degrees, 66” W
latitude longitude
Latitude & Longitude
  • Latitude
    • Measures distance north and south of the Equator.
  • Longitude
    • Measures distances east and west of the Prime Meridian
  • Divides the Earth into two halves (Northern and Southern Hemisphere.
  • Line of latitude
prime meridian
Prime Meridian
  • Divides World into Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
  • Greenwich, England
international dateline
International Dateline
  • Opposite of

Prime Meridian

place ii
  • Described by physical and human characteristics
place physical
PLACE - physical
  • Landforms
  • Climate
  • Soil
  • Animal Life
place human characteristics
PLACE – Human Characteristics
  • Way of life
    • Transportation
    • Religion
    • Languages
think about our place
Think about our PLACE

On a sheet of loose leaf/ note book paper:

Describe Media as a place.

Consider the following:

  • Stores
  • Landforms
  • Religions
  • Animal Life
  • Weather
  • Transportation
interaction between people environment
Interaction Between People & Environment
  • How do we interact with our environment?
hidden cost
Hidden Cost
  • How has interactions with environment created “hidden costs?”
    • Farming
    • Transportation
people adapt
People adapt
  • How do people adapt to different environments?
  • Desert
  • Tropical
  • Arctic
  • Earthquake Prone
  • Beach
  • Mountain
movement iii
  • Movement of
    • People
    • Places
    • Goods
      • How did people get to America (early settlers/natives)
      • Early people moved primarily for?
      • Alaskan land bridge
  • Exports – What is it?
  • Imports – What is it?
  • Copper/ Farm products/ Coffee Beans/ Oil
ideas spread
Ideas Spread
  • Religion
  • Technology
  • Television
  • Global Interdependence
    • Dependence of countries on goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world.
    • What is something we are dependant on?
key terms
  • Geography
  • Latitude
  • Longitude
  • Export
  • Import
  • Interdependence
how am i going to remember these five themes
HOW am I going to remember these FIVE themes?
  • Place
  • Interaction between people and Environment
  • Location
  • Movement
  • Region
regions v
  • Identified by:
    • Physical characteristics
    • Economic
    • Political
    • Cultural
      • PEPC
  • Book
    • Athenians fighting a war against Persia
    • Athenians want aid from Sparta
      • Athens supplies Sparta with a map hoping for an alliance.
    • Sparta assesses that Athens is a greater threat because of the map
tools of geographers
Tools of Geographers
  • Geographers use globes and maps.
  • Why is a globe more accurate than a map.
map projection
Map Projection
  • Show a curved earth on a flat surface.
  • Accuracy varies depending on type of map.
mercator projection
Mercator Projection
  • Gerardus Mercator - 1569
    • Sailors needed a map that showed direction accurately (N/S/E/W)
mercator projection2
Mercator Projection
  • Accurate view of land areas NEAR EQUATOR
  • Direction (N/S/E/W)
  • North and South Poles
    • Land becomes distorted
    • What is the problem with using a Mercator Projection?
interrupted projection
Interrupted Projection
  • Shoe correct sizes and shapes of landmasses
  • Cut-out oceans
  • Impossible to:
    • accurately measure distance
    • plot a course across an ocean
peters projection
Peters Projection
  • Shows correct areas of landmasses and oceans.
  • Directions are accurate
  • Distorts shapes of continents
    • Notice how Africa appears longer and thinner.
robinson projection
Robinson Projection
  • Shows correct sizes and shapes of most landmasses
  • Fairly accurate view of sizes of the oceans
  • Fairly accurate view of distance over landmasses
  • Distortions along the edge of the map
  • Positives and Negatives
    • Mercator
    • Interrupted
    • Peters
    • Robinson
      • Which do you think is the best?
special purpose maps
Special Purpose Maps
  • Political Map
    • Shows borders that divide nations
physical map
Physical Map
  • Shows physical features (lakes/mountains)
  • Physical features of a place or region
  • A Mapmaker
  • Mountain
  • What makes a mountain?
  • Hills
  • Plains
    • Low elevation, flat.
  • Coastal Plains
    • Plains that border oceans
  • Plateaus
    • Large area of high, flat or gently rolling land.
    • Mexico City
  • Bay
    • Part of a body of water that is partly enclosed by land
  • Cape
    • Narrow point of land that extends into a body of water
  • Delta
    • Area formed by soil deposited at the mouth of a river
  • Divide
    • Ridge that separates rivers that flow in one direction from those that flow in the opposite direction
  • Hill
    • Area of raised land that is lower and more rounded than a mountain
  • Isthmus
    • Narrow strip of land joining two large land areas or joining a peninsula to a mainland
  • Lake
    • Body of water surrounded by land
  • Mountain
    • High, steep, rugged terrain that is at least 2,000 ft. above sea level
  • Mouth of a river
    • Where a river empties into a larger body of water
  • Peninsula
    • Piece of land that is surrounded on 3 sides by water
  • Plain
    • Broad area of fairly level land – usually close to sea level
  • Plateau
    • Large area of high land that is flat or gently rolling
  • River Valley
    • Land drained or watered by a river
  • Source of a River
    • Place where a river originates
  • Strait
    • Narrow channel that connects two larger bodies of water
  • Tributary
    • Stream or small river that flows into a larger stream or river
quiz friday 9 12 global studies
    • Be able to provide an actual example (name) of the following:
      • Mouth of a River
      • Peninsula
      • Mountain Range
      • Bay
      • Harbor
      • Cape
      • Gulf
      • Strait