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  1. Queues Data structures that wait their turn queues

  2. Queue characteristics • FIFO: first in, first out • insertion of items occurs at one end, removal occurs at the other end • first item inserted is the first item removed; second inserted is second removed, third is third, etc. queues

  3. Queue characteristics • Structure is very similar to stack, with much the same considerations -- still subject to overflow and underflow • Unlike stack, queue is accessible at both ends • Entry and removal still occur at one end -- but each operation occurs at a different end queues

  4. Java’s Queue interface • Unlike the Stack ADT, the Java API doesn’t provide a full implementation of a generic Queue • The Queue interface specifies methods for working with a queue, most of which are listed on the next slide • There are several API classes that implement the interface, but each of these adds methods not specified by the interface queues

  5. Queue ADT member methods • Constructor(s) • Modifiers • enqueue (insert item at back): add • dequeue (remove item at front): remove • Observers • size • isEmpty queues

  6. Queue implementations • The API classes that implement the Queue interface are designed for more sophisticated uses than the simple interface implies • We can implement a simple queue using either an array or a linked list as the basic structure queues

  7. Array implementation public class ArrayQueue<E> implements Cloneable { private E[ ] data; private int manyItems; private int front; private int rear; … queues

  8. Array implementation public ArrayQueue( ) { final int INITIAL_CAPACITY = 10; manyItems = 0; data = (E[]) new Object[INITIAL_CAPACITY];}// Since queue is empty, front and rear values // don’t matter queues

  9. Array implementation public ArrayQueue(int initialCapacity) { if (initialCapacity < 0) throw new IllegalArgumentException ("initialCapacity is negative: " + initialCapacity); manyItems = 0; data = (E[]) new Object[initialCapacity]; } queues

  10. Array implementation public ArrayQueue<E> clone( ) { ArrayQueue<E> answer; try { answer = (ArrayQueue<E>) super.clone( ); } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) { throw new RuntimeException ("This class does not implement Cloneable"); } answer.data = data.clone( ); return answer; } queues

  11. Enqueue and dequeue – not as simple as they look! // first attempt at enqueue public void add (E item) { if (manyItems == 0) { front = 0; rear = 0; }rear++; data[rear]=item; manyItems++; } queues

  12. dequeue (first attempt) public E remove( ) { E answer; if (manyItems == 0) throw new NoSuchElementException("Queue underflow"); answer = data[front]; front++; manyItems--; return answer; } queues

  13. Problems!!! • Consider a queue with a capacity of 3: • As items are added, rear approaches capacity: • As items are removed, front approaches back: • Situation: queue isn’t full (manyItems = 0) but attempt to add an item will go beyond array boundary queues

  14. Possible solution • Maintain fixed front of queue: // dequeue method: answer = data[0]; for (int x=0; x<rear; x++) data[x]=data[x+1]; • Increases complexity of algorithm considerably -- we’ve gone from O(1) operation in original function to O(N) queues

  15. Better solution: circular array • Let front continue to float, but add ability for rear to float as well • When rear reaches index capacity-1, if queue isn’t full, rear=0 • In effect, the successor of the last array index is the first array index -- array can be thought of as circular • Can also grow array as necessary queues

  16. Circular queue implementation • Add helper function nextIndex as private method of queue class: private int nextIndex(int i) { if (++i == data.length) return 0; else return i; } • Call method from enqueue and dequeue queues

  17. New enqueue method public void add(E item) { if (manyItems == data.length) ensureCapacity(manyItems*2 + 1); if (manyItems == 0) { front = 0; rear = 0; } else rear = nextIndex(rear); data[rear] = item; manyItems++; } queues

  18. New dequeue method public E remove( ) { E answer; if (manyItems == 0) throw new NoSuchElementException("Queue underflow"); answer = data[front]; front = nextIndex(front); manyItems--; return answer; } queues

  19. Other methods • Besides the queue-specific methods (and clone()), the ArrayQueue implementation includes a few other methods: • ensureCapacity • trimToSize • getCapacity queues

  20. Invariant for revised queue • Number of items on queue stored in variable manyItems • Items are stored in circular array from data[front] to data[rear] • If queue is empty, manyItems == 0 and the values of front and rear are undefined queues

  21. Queue as linked list • Implementation using linked list is actually easier • Ironically, the Java API’s LinkedList class implements the Queue interface, and will be our preferred implementation when we look at queue applications • Need to decide which end of list is which; easiest implementation is to have the head pointer point to the front of the list, and maintain another pointer to keep track of the back queues

  22. Code for linked list queue public class LinkedQueue<E> implements Cloneable{ private int manyNodes; private Node<E> front; private Node<E> rear; public LinkedQueue( ) { front = null; rear = null; } queues

  23. Code for linked list queue public void add(E item) { if (isEmpty( )) { front = new Node<E>(item, null); rear = front; } else { rear.addNodeAfter(item); rear = rear.getLink( ); } manyNodes++; } queues

  24. Code for linked list queue public LinkedQueue<E> clone( ) { LinkedQueue<E> answer; Node<E>[ ] cloneInfo; try { answer = (LinkedQueue<E>) super.clone( ); } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) { throw new RuntimeException ("This class does not implement Cloneable"); } queues

  25. Clone method continued cloneInfo = Node.listCopyWithTail(front); answer.front = cloneInfo[0]; answer.rear = cloneInfo[1]; return answer; } queues

  26. Code for linked list queue public boolean isEmpty( ) { return (manyNodes == 0); } public int size( ) { return manyNodes; } queues

  27. Code for linked list queue public E remove( ) { E answer; if (manyNodes == 0) throw new NoSuchElementException("Queue underflow"); answer = front.getData( ); front = front.getLink( ); manyNodes--; if (manyNodes == 0) rear = null; return answer; } queues

  28. Invariant for linked list implementation • The number of items in the queue is stored in the instance variable manyNodes. • The items in the queue are stored in a linked list, with the front of the queue stored at the head node, and the rear of the queue at the final node. • For a non-empty queue, the instance variable front is the head reference of the linked list and the instance variable rear is the tail reference. For an empty queue, both front and rear are the null reference. queues

  29. Priority Queues • Variation on an ordinary queue -- stores entries and a priority value for each entry • Elements are dequeued according to priority, highest first • In case of a tie, priority queue reverts to FIFO behavior queues2

  30. PQ implementation • One strategy is to create an array of ordinary queues • each element in the array would be a queue of items • all items in any given queue have equal priority • Array index indicates priority level queues2

  31. PQ Implementation public class PQ<E> { private ArrayQueue<E>[] queues; public int highest; public int total; public int highCurrent; public PQ<E> (int h){ highest = h; queues = ArrayQueue<E>[] new Object[h+1]; total = 0; highCurrent = 0; } queues2

  32. PQ implementation public int size () { return total; } public boolean is_empty() { return (total == 0); } queues2

  33. Enqueue function template <class Item> void PQ<Item>::PQenqueue(const Item& entry, int priority) { assert (priority <= HIGHEST); // if this is highest priority entry so far, so note: if (priority > highest_current) highest_current = priority; // place entry in queue: queues[priority].enqueue(entry); // increment count of total entries: count++; } queues2

  34. Dequeue function template <class Item> Item PQ<Item>::PQdequeue() { assert (PQsize() > 0); int p = highest_current; count--; for(p; p>=0; p--) if (!queues[p].is_empty()) return queues[p].dequeue(); } queues2