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Business-to-Business Buyer Behavior. 4. Chapter Overview. Categories of B-to-B buyers. Business buying center. B-to-B purchasing process. Factors and issues in B-to-B communications. 4. Intel. How many manufacturers of microprocessors can you identify?

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chapter overview

Buyer Behavior


Chapter Overview
  • Categories of B-to-B buyers.
  • Business buying center.
  • B-to-B purchasing process.
  • Factors and issues in B-to-B communications.
  • How many manufacturers of microprocessors can you identify?
  • Why is the Intel name so well-known?
  • To create a strong brand name, how important is the business-to-business marketing communication component of the IMC plan?

Discussion Question

types of products
Types of Products
  • Major equipment
  • Accessory equipment
  • Fabricated and component parts
  • Process materials
  • Maintenance or repair parts
  • Operating supplies
  • Raw materials
  • Operating services
  • Professional services
  • Products for resale


  • Http://
  • Http://
  • Http://
  • Http://
  • Http://
  • Http://

What type of products do the following companies sell?

What types of businesses might purchase the products?

types of customers
Types of Customers
  • Manufacturers
  • Government agencies
  • Institutions
  • Wholesalers and distributors
  • Retailers
  • International firms


United Raw Material Solutions, Inc.


  • Which members of the buying center would use this Web site?
  • How would sellers utilize this Web site?
  • What advantage and disadvantages do you see for both the buyer and seller?
factors affecting members of the buying centers
Factors Affecting Members of the Buying Centers
  • Organizational influences
  • Individual factors
  • Cultural factors
  • Social factors
This ad for Ceco Building Systems emphasizes a personal touch, providing the phone numbers of the heads of the company’s three plants.
organizational influences on buying center
Organizational Influences on Buying Center
  • Organizational goals
  • Operating environment
  • Organizational resources
  • Organizational structure
  • Decision heuristics
F I G U R E 4 . 2

Individual Factors Affecting the Behaviors ofBuying Center Members

types of business to business sales
Types of Business-to-Business Sales
  • Straight rebuy
  • Modified rebuy
  • New task
business to business buying process
Business-to-Business Buying Process
  • Identification of a need.
    • Derived demand
    • Acceleration principle
    • Joint demand
  • Establishment of specifications.
  • Identification of alternatives.
  • Identification of vendors.
  • Evaluation of vendors.
  • Selection of vendors.
  • Negotiate purchase terms.
typical items examined during a vendor audit
Typical Items ExaminedDuring a Vendor Audit
  • Production capability.
  • Quality control mechanisms and processes.
  • Type and age of equipment used.
  • Telecommunication and EDI capabilities.
  • Capacity to handle fluctuations in orders.
  • Financial stability of the firm.
  • Number of competitors that purchase from the firm.
selecting an edi vendor sample vendor selection criteria
Selecting an EDI VendorSample Vendor Selection Criteria
  • Fast deployment capability (minimize down time in installation)
  • Full-service (hardware and software)
  • Upgrade capability (for future growth)
  • System architecture (compatibility with supplier systems)
  • Cost (acquisition plus ongoing support)
  • Dependability (of system)
  • Availability (of support personnel after installation)
building a b to b brand
Building a B-to-B Brand
  • Brand parity exists in most markets.
  • Internet makes vendor searches easier.
  • Seek a clear, unified brand.
  • Strip away anything that may be confusing about the brand.
  • Articulate a meaningful difference to buyers.
  • Invest in the brand for the future.
marketing to the buyer
Marketing to the Buyer
  • New trends in media selection.
  • Greater use of the Internet by buyers.
  • Three categories of buyers
    • CEOs
    • Top management
    • C-level management
dual channel marketing
Dual Channel Marketing
  • Consumer and B-to-B markets
  • Spin-off sales
  • Image concerns
  • Dual strategy
    • Different communication messages
    • Create different brands
    • Use multiple or different channels
  • Single strategy
    • Integrate communication message
    • Sell same brand in both markets
    • Scan both markets for dual opportunities
business to business trends
Business-to-Business Trends
  • Accountability.
  • Web sites and Internet marketing.
  • Global branding.
  • Database mining.
  • Alternative communication methods.
  • Internal marketing communications.
Building Your IMC Campaign
  • Identify the type of good or service.
  • Identify retail outlets to sell your product.
  • Identify wholesalers or distributors for your product.
  • What types of businesses would be interested in purchasing your product directly?
  • Relate the buying center concept to your product.
  • Identify vendors you will need to produce your product.