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Aerosol Particle Emissions from Grilling Burgers Annie Wapniarski, Daniel Choi, Kasady Liu, Michelle Mak. Discussion

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Aerosol Particle Emissions from Grilling Burgers

Annie Wapniarski, Daniel Choi, Kasady Liu, Michelle Mak

Discussion

Uncertainties: Because of the close proximity, there is a possibility that the smoke of the different grills integrated together. The size differences of the grills could be another source of error, as well as the amount of ambient air vacuumed into the filters.

Implications: In developing countries, many people are limited to the usage of biomass like dung, wood, and charcoal as a source of heat and energy. By researching what kind of emissions are produced by different types of grills and patties, we can create a fingerprint of them. These can be used to better understand the ambient air pollution and find solutions for the future.

Abstract

  • In developing countries, cooking stoves emit carbon, methane, and ozone, polluting the atmosphere. We explored the effects of cooking emissions on pollution. We hypothesized that the meat patty on the charcoal grill would emit more particles than the propane veggie patty. In the experiment, the organic particles of emissions were measured using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Our data led us to believe that cooking burgers produces more organic particles than either grills heating up. In addition, propane grilled burgers produced more particles than charcoal. This research may lead to improvement in the climate and health of the world.

Results: Organic Particle Concentrations

  • The amount of FTIR absorption shows that organic particle concentrations were 300 times higher from cooking burgers than just heating grills.
      • Heating grills had concentrations of 200-300 ug/m3.
      • Propane grilling had 20% lower concentrations than charcoal grilling.
      • Cooking burgers had concentrations of 500-10000 ug/m3.
      • Veggie burgers had 5-10 times lower than from beef burgers.

Total Emissions from Heating

Total Emissions from Burgers

  • Conclusions

Beef patties grilled on propane released the most amount of organic aerosols.

  • The amount of FTIR absorption shows that organic particle concentrations were 300 times higher from cooking burgers than just heating grills.
  • The peaks in the FTIR spectra show that cooking burgers produced more alkane and carbonyl groups than just heating the grills.

These methods could be used to identify and categorize pollutants in order to reduce and eliminate them. By knowing which functional groups compose the emissions, we can determine how effective the particles within the emissions are in making clouds.

Materials and Methods

-4 Charcoal Grills

-1 Propane Grill

-1 Package of Beef Patties

-1 Package of Veggie Patties

-10 Teflon Filters

For our experiment, we set up two different grills to analyze the emissions produced by charcoal and propane to cook burgers. We first collected particles from the grills' emissions on filters, which vacuumed the air in liters per minute, while they were heating up, serving as our control. In our next trials, we collected data comparing veggie and meat patties on charcoal and propane grills. Then, we analyzed filters using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to measure the concentration and composition of organic particles.

Results: Organic Particle Chemical Composition

        • The peaks in the FTIR spectra show that cooking burgers produced more alkane and carbonyl groups than just heating the grills:
  • Propane emitted .7% more carboxylic acid FG and 1%more alcohol FG than charcoal
  • Beef burgers emitted more alkane groups and fewer alcohol groups than veggie burgers.

Emissions from Beef Burgers

Emissions from Propane Heating

References

Mohr, Claudia, J. Alex Huffman, Michael J. Cubison, Allison C. Aiken, Kenneth S. Docherty, Joel R. Kimmel, Ingrid M. Ulbrich, Michael Hannigan, and Jose L. Jimenez. "Characterization of Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Meat Cooking, Trash Burning, and Motor Vehicles with High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry and Comparison with Ambient and Chamber Observations." Environmental Science & Technology 43.7 (2009): 2443-449. Print.

Wavenumbers

Emissions from Charcoal Heating

Add caption here.

Emissions from Veggie Burgers