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Political Developments in the Early Republic. Chapter 11. I. Launching the New Government. First President April 30, 1789 – Washington takes oath of office BrainPOP Title Debate Argued over title Washington preferred “ Mr. President ” Setting Up the Executive Branch

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I launching the new government
I. Launching the New Government

  • First President

    • April 30, 1789 – Washington takes oath of office


  • Title Debate

    • Argued over title

    • Washington preferred “Mr. President”

  • Setting Up the Executive Branch

    • Department of State – to handle relations with other countries

    • Department of War – to defend the nation

    • Treasury Department – oversee nation’s finances

    • Attorney General – president’s legal advisor

    • Postmaster General – head postal system

Ii washington as president
II. Washington as President

  • Critical Problem

    • National treasury was empty

    • 1791 – Congress agreed to tax on whiskey and luxury goods

  • Whiskey Rebellion

    • Many complaints on whiskey tax

    • Congress lowered in 1793

    • Rebels in Western PA tarred and feathered tax collectors

      a) Washington led 13,000 state militia troops to crush rebels

  • French Revolution

    • 1789 – French people rebelled against king

      • 20,000 people killed (mostly nobility)


Ii washington as president1
II. Washington as President

  • Washington’s Farewell Address

    • Agreed to 2nd term in 1792

    • Messages to the Nation

      • Warned of problems with other countries

      • Warned of loyalty to political parties


The words from Washington’s Farewell Address are just as important today as they were when he left office.

What could our nation learn from the words of our first president?

Iii alexander hamilton the federalist party
III. Alexander Hamilton & the Federalist Party

  • Background

    • Was born in the West Indies

    • Was Washington’s personal assistant during war

    • Married girl from political family which helped him into Congress

  • View of Human Nature

    • People were basically selfish and out for themselves

    • Distrusted any system of government that gave too much power to the common people

Iii alexander hamilton the federalist party1
III. Alexander Hamilton & the Federalist Party

  • Best Form of Government

    • Believed that country should be ruled by “best people” – educated, wealthy

    • Favored a strong national government

  • Ideal Economy

    • 1790

      • economy based on agriculture

      • Hamilton presented Congress with plan to pay off war debts asap

        1 – promised capital location to south if they supported

      • Also asked Congress to establish a national bank (collect taxes, print paper money, loans)

Iii alexander hamilton the federalist party2
III. Alexander Hamilton & the Federalist Party

  • Relations with Britain & France

    • 1793 – war broke out between France and England

      a) Federalists sided with Britain

Iv thomas jefferson the republican party
IV. Thomas Jefferson & the Republican Party

  • Background

    • Born in Virginia and became tobacco planter (slave-owner)

  • View of Human Nature

    1. Informed citizens could make good decisions for themselves and their country

  • Best Form of Government

    • Favored democracy

    • Best government was one that governed the least

    • Constitution meant exactly what it said (no more or less)

    • Favored strong state governments

Iv thomas jefferson the republican party1
IV. Thomas Jefferson & the Republican Party

  • Ideal Economy

    1. Favored economy based on agriculture

  • Relations with Britain & France

    • Supported France

    • French Representative to the US, Edmond Genet, attempted to convince Americans to join the French in war with Britain

      a) Ordered to leave the country after insulting President Washington

V presidency of john adams
V. Presidency of John Adams

  • Election of 1796

    • Republicans backed Jefferson

    • Federalists supported John Adams

    • Adams elected by 3 votes, Jefferson VP

  • Alien & Sedition Acts

    • Alien Acts (3)

      • Lengthened time it took for immigrant to become a citizen with right to vote from 5 to 14 years

      • Allowed president to jail or deport aliens suspected of causing trouble

    • Sedition Act – made encouraging rebellion against government a crime

V presidency of john adams1
V. Presidency of John Adams

  • Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions

    • Set of statements opposing Alien & Sedition Act

    • Virginia & Kentucky only 2 states who adopted resolutions

  • New National Capital

    1. 1800 – federal government moved to city of Washington in District of Columbia

Vi election of 1800
VI. Election of 1800

  • 1800 Election

    • Republican leaders backed Jefferson with Aaron Burr as VP

    • Federalists chose John Adams for reelection with Charles Pinckney as VP

  • The Campaign

    • Jefferson supported the Constitution and states’ rights, run a simple government

    • Adams ran on his record of peace and prosperity

  • Divided Federalists

    1. Hamilton’s followers refuse to support Adams because of foreign policy disagreements

Vii deadlock a new amendment
VII. Deadlock & a New Amendment

  • Election Results

    1. All Republican electors voted for Jefferson and Burr resulting in a tie between them

  • Breaking the Tie

    • Sent to the House of Representatives where each state gets 1 vote – ended in another tie

    • 6 days and 35 ballots later – Hamilton broke deadlock by asking his supporters to vote for Jefferson

    • 1804 – 12th amendment added, calling for separate ballots for president and vice president