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The Body in Health and Disease

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  1. 2 The Body in Health and Disease

  2. Learning Objectives • Describe approaches used to organize information about the human body. • Identify body directions, body cavities, body systems, and medical specialties. • Describe various categories of diseases. • Describe techniques used to perform a physical examination.

  3. Learning Objectives • Describe categories of healthcare professionals and settings in which health care is provided. • Give the medical meaning of word parts related to the body, health, and disease. • Build medical words about the body, health, and disease from word parts and divide and define words.

  4. Learning Objectives • Spell and pronounce medical words about the body, health, and disease. • Dive deeper into the body, health, and disease by reviewing the activities at the end of this chapter and online at Medical Terminology Interactive.

  5. Multimedia Directory Slide 21 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Video Slide 50 Introduction to Body Systems Animation Slide 57 Hand Hygiene and Gloving Video Slide 72 Physical Examination Video Slide 90 Health Information Management Video 1 Slide 92 Health Information Management Video 2 Slide 93 Health Information Management Video 3 Slide 94 Health Information Management Video 4 Slide 95 Health Information Management Video 5

  6. The Body in Health Seven different approaches for studying the body: Body planes and body directions approach Body cavities approach Quadrants and regions approach Anatomy and physiology approach Microscopic-to-macroscopic approach Body systems approach Medical specialties approach

  7. Figure 2-1 Human body in anatomical position

  8. Body Planes and Body Directions Approach When the human body is in anatomical position, it can be studied by dividing it with planes. A plane is an imaginary flat surface, like a plate of glass. Three body planes: coronal plane, sagittal plane, and transverse plane.

  9. Figure 2-3 Coronal and sagittal sutures of the cranium

  10. Coronal plane

  11. Sagittalplane

  12. Transverse plane

  13. Body Planes and Body Directions Approach (cont’d) These body planes divide the body into front and back, right and left, and top and bottom sections. Body directions represent movement away from or toward those planes.

  14. The Coronal Plane and Body Directions The coronal plane (or frontal plane) is a vertical plane that divides the body into front and back sections. The coronal plane is named for the coronal suture in the cranium.

  15. The Coronal Plane and Body Directions (cont’d) The front of the body is the anterior or ventral section. The back of the body is the posterior or dorsal section.

  16. Figure 2-5 Posteroanterior direction

  17. The Coronal Plane and Body Directions (cont’d) Lying with the anterior section of the body down is being in the prone position. Lying with the posterior section of the body down is being in the dorsal or supine position.

  18. The Sagittal Plane and Body Directions A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left sections. Named for the sagittal suture in the cranium. If this plane divides the body at the midline into equal right and left sections, then it is a midsagittal plane.

  19. The Sagittal Plane and Body Directions (cont'd) If this plane divides the body anywhere to the left or right of the midline, it is a parasagittal plane.

  20. The Sagittal Plane and Body Directions (cont’d) Moving from the side of the body toward the midline is moving in a medial direction, or medially. Moving from the midline toward the side of the body is moving in a lateral direction, or laterally.

  21. Figure 2-6 Sagittal plane

  22. Figure 2-7Midsagittal view of the head on an MRI scan (DR Unique/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)

  23. MRI Video Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of MRI. There may be a brief delay before the video starts playing. Back to Directory

  24. Figure 2-8 Medial and lateral are directional opposites

  25. The Transverse Plane and Body Directions Horizontal plane that divides the body into top and bottom sections. The upper half of the body is the superior section, and the lower half is the inferior section.

  26. Figure 2-9 Transverse plane

  27. The Transverse Plane and Body Directions (cont’d) Moving toward the head is moving in a superior direction, or superiorly. This is also the cephalad direction. Moving toward the tailbone is moving in an inferior direction, or inferiorly. This is also the caudaddirection.

  28. Other Body Directions and Positions Moving from the body toward the end of a limb (arm or leg) is moving in a distal direction, or distally. Moving from the end of a limb toward where it is attached to the body is moving in a proximal direction, or proximally.

  29. Figure 2-10 Superior and inferior parts

  30. Figure 2-11 Cephalad and caudad directions

  31. Figure 2-12 Distal and proximal directions

  32. Other Body Directions and Positions (cont’d) Structures on the surface of the body are superficial or external structures. Structures below the surface and inside the body are deep or internal structures.

  33. Figure 2-13 External and internal positions

  34. Body Cavities Approach The human body can be studied according to its body cavities and their internal organs. A cavity is a hollow space that is surrounded by bones or muscles. The cranial cavity lies within and is protected by the cranium.

  35. Body Cavities Approach (cont’d) The spinal cavity or spinal canal is a continuation of the cranial cavity as it travels down the midline of the back. The spinal cavity lies within and is protected by the bones (vertebrae) of the spinal column. The spinal cavity contains the spinal cord, the spinal nerves, and spinal fluid.

  36. Body Cavities Approach (cont’d) The thoracic cavity lies within the chest and is protected by the breastbone (sternum) anteriorly, the ribs laterally, and the spinal column posteriorly. The inferior border of the thoracic cavity is the large, muscular diaphragm that functions during respiration. The thoracic cavity contains the lungs.

  37. Body Cavities Approach (cont’d) The abdominal cavity lies within the abdomen and is protected by the bones of the spinal column posteriorly. The pelvic cavity is a continuation of the abdominal cavity and lies within and is protected by the pelvic bones anteriorly and laterally. These two cavities are often referred to as the abdominopelvic cavity.

  38. Figure 2-14 Body cavities

  39. Quadrants and Regions Approach The human body can be studied according to its quadrants and regions. The anterior surface of the abdominopelvic area can be divided into four quadrants or nine regions.

  40. Quadrants and Regions Approach (cont’d) The four quadrants include: Right upper quadrant (RUQ). Left upper quadrant (LUQ). Left lower quadrant (LLQ). Right lower quadrant (RLQ).

  41. Figure 2-15 Quadrants of the abdominopelvic area

  42. Quadrants and Regions Approach (cont’d) The nine regions include the: Right and left hypochondriac regions. Epigastric region. Right and left lumbar regions. Umbilical region. Right and left inguinal or iliac regions. Hypogastric region.

  43. Figure 2-16 Regions of the abdominopelvic area

  44. Anatomy and Physiology Approach Anatomy is the study of the structures of the human body. Physiology is the study of the function of those structures.

  45. Microscopic-to-Macroscopic Approach Most cells and cellular structures are microscopic in size and can be seen only through a microscope. Some cells, such as a female ovum, are large enough to be seen with the naked eye. Cells combine to form tissues, and tissues combine to form organs.

  46. Figure 2-17 Using a microscope to study the human body (microscope: Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.; heart muscle: Michael Abbey/Photo Researchers, Inc.

  47. Microscopic-to-Macroscopic Approach (cont’d) Tissues and organs are macroscopic, that is, they can be seen with the naked eye. Organs combine to form a body system. The human body contains several different body systems.

  48. Body Systems Approach The human body can be studied according to its various organs and how they function together in a body system. Gastrointestinal (Gl) system Respiratory system Cardiovascular (CV) system Blood Lymphatic system Integumentary system

  49. Body Systems Approach (cont’d) The human body can be studied according to its various organs and how they function together in a body system. Skeletal system Muscular system Nervous system Urinary system Male genital and reproductive system Female genital and reproductive system

  50. Body Systems Approach (cont’d) The human body can be studied according to its various organs and how they function together in a body system. Endocrine system Eyes Ears, nose, and throat (ENT) system