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Emergency Capacity Building Project. Safety, Security & Civil / Military Relations . Civil Military Relations. Guidelines. SCHR – Position paper on Humanitarian –Military Relations in the Provision of Humanitarian Assistance IASC – Civil Military Relationship in Complex Emergencies

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Emergency Capacity Building Project

Safety, Security & Civil / Military Relations



Guidelines
Guidelines

  • SCHR – Position paper on Humanitarian –Military Relations in the Provision of Humanitarian Assistance

  • IASC – Civil Military Relationship in Complex Emergencies

  • Guidelines on the Use of Military and Civil Defense Assets to support UN Humanitarian Activities in Complex Emergencies

  • Use of Military or Armed Escorts for Humanitarian Convoys

  • Guidance for Interaction between UN Personnel and Military and Civilian Representatives of the Occupying Power in Iraq


Schr guidelines
SCHR Guidelines

  • SCHR – WCC, CARE, Caritas, IFRC, ICRC, LWF, Oxfam Intl, SCA

  • Relations with armed forces in situations in armed conflict

  • Background – recognition that political and military actors are increasingly getting involved in provision of relief beyond obligations under IHL


Humanitarian principles
Humanitarian Principles

  • Independence – We shall endeavor not to act as instruments of government foreign policy

  • Impartiality – Aid is given regardless of the race, creed or nationality of the recipients and without adverse distinction of any kind. Aid priorities are calculated on the basis of need alone.

  • Neutrality – Aid will not be used to further a political or religious standpoint.


Schr position 2001
SCHR Position (2001)

  • It is never appropriate for the military to directly implement humanitarian activities in general circumstances

  • Only in exceptional circumstances, and very rarely is it appropriate for the military to directly implement humanitarian activities, for which there must be specific criteria


Schr position 2001 cont
SCHR Position (2001) Cont.

  • Humanitarian agencies will only use military armed protection as a last resort in extreme circumstances

  • Only certain types of information can and should be shared between humanitarian agencies and the military


Times are changing
Times Are Changing!

  • Increasing military involvement in humanitarian assistance to win “hearts and minds”

  • Nation building by occupying forces, PRTs

  • Increasing use of Integrated Missions

  • “Blurring of lines”

  • between governments and military wings

  • between NGOs and military forces

  • Increasing role of private contractors

  • Need for military logs capacity for large-scale humanitarian response


Military perspective
Military Perspective

  • Increasingly sophisticated doctrine re. how to relate to civilians

  • Driven by the military mission

  • Support of civilian population is seen as critical to achieving military goals – “Force Multiplier”


Key implication
Key Implication

  • Lack of Distinction between civilian agencies (NGOs, national and intl) and the military

  • How do we continue to abide by our Humanitarian Principles?


Types of armed groups
Types of Armed Groups

  • UN mandated forces - Chapter VI

  • UN mandated forces - Chapter VII

  • Occupying powers

  • National forces

  • Non-state armed groups or forces


United nations mandated force chapter vi
United Nations Mandated Force - Chapter VI

  • Meant to keep the peace but are allowed to use force in self-defense

  • Not so common now

  • Provision of humanitarian assistance should only be a “last resort” and overall control should be of a civilian nature

  • Ex. Cyprus


Un mandated force chapter vii
UN Mandated Force-Chapter VII

  • Common and difficult scenario

  • UN forces are allowed to actively engage in combat

  • Increasing use of Integrated Missions

  • Many NGOs work closely with UN

  • If agencies are too closely associated with a party to the conflict, could hinder effectiveness

  • Provision of humanitarian assistance should only be a “last resort” and overall control should be of a civilian nature

  • Ex. UNMIL Liberia


Occupying power
Occupying Power

  • 4th Geneva Conventions apply. OP has legal obligations with regard to welfare of the population – free passage of medical items, food, etc.

  • This does not mean military should fulfill all roles

  • SCHR agencies should not use assets of OP

  • Need to distinguish themselves from the OP

  • Ex. Coalition forces in Iraq


National forces
National Forces

  • 4th Geneva Convention obligations – free passage of medical items, food

  • Moral and legal obligations to care for own people

  • Should facilitate the work of humanitarian agencies

  • SCHR agencies should work hard to distinguish themselves from National Governments and their allies

  • SCHR agencies should not use their assets, esp. armed escorts

  • Ex. Ethiopia and Eritrea 2000


Non state armed groups
Non-State Armed Groups

  • Geneva Conventions do not apply as they may not be a recognized force (Common Article 3 which prohibits torture and inhumane treatment has some authority)

  • Minimal protection obligations placed on such actors

  • They are often the worst abusers of IHL

  • Often engage in assistance for areas under their control or key constituencies

  • SCHR agencies should not use their assets


Practical guidelines
Practical Guidelines

  • Keep distance where possible

  • Take steps to be visually different

  • Cooperate but do not be coordinated

  • Don’t use military assets unless there is no other alternative

  • Only use armed escorts in exceptional circumstances – must have senior mgmt approval

  • Be careful when sharing info – don’t act as proxy intelligence gatherers


Practical guidelines cont
Practical Guidelines Cont.

  • Be pragmatic – keep in mind the humanitarian imperative

  • Use advocacy to hold authorities accountable for providing humanitarian assistance

  • Try and ensure that military personnel visiting SC compounds leave weapons outside

  • No weapons in vehicles – vehicles and offices to display “no weapons” signs clearly


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