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Unit Two - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Unit Two
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  1. Unit Two “Human Population”

  2. History of Humanity

  3. History of Humanity In 2015 it was discovered via genetic testing of Neanderthal remains that humans share up to 40% of our genetic code with this ancient species This is significant because until recently it was thought their evolutionary line was distinctly separate from that of humans -Homo sapiens http://news.discovery.com/human/genetics/ancient-human-with-10-percent-neanderthal-genes-found-150622.htm

  4. History of Humanity Recent research supports the hypothesis basic tools were needed for food preparation, mainly meat (protein) Basic tools made it possible for oral consumption and subsequent digestion Evidence suggests because of consumption of meat, the human brain added mass and complexity http://www.medicaldaily.com/stone-tools-human-evolution-food-processing-big-brain-377219

  5. Human Population Growth • At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in 1750 the global human population was approximately 750 million • By 1800 the global human population increased by 250 million to just over 1 billion • Human population has doubled since 1964 • The human population is growing by approximately 78 million individuals annually; global population now is approximately 6.7 billion • A population paradox is occurring: contraction in post industrial countries, growth in pre industrial/industrial countries

  6. Human Global Population Growth Rates

  7. Human Population Growth cont’d • Reasons for population growth are: • 1. medical advances • 2. improved sanitation • 3. better medical care • 4. increased agricultural output

  8. Human Population Decline • Reasons for population decline are: • 1. socioeconomic changes that decrease the need for large families • 2. adult selfishness – having/raising children is difficult….but rewarding • 3. cost of raising children is expensive • 4. difficulty in finding suitable spouse

  9. Human Population cont’d • Human population will stabilize in the not too distant future • However, in the meantime, humanity must analyze the impact we have on the earth in reference to resource extraction and utilization

  10. Demography • Demography – application of population ecology principles to study of change in human populations • Population size - < 6.9 billion • China: 1.3 billion • India: 1.1 billion • USA: 310 million • Various Island Nations: 100,000 or less

  11. Demography cont’d • Population density varies greatly from region to region • 1. resources • 2. stage of demographic transition • Human distribution tends to be clumped spatially; Why? • Humans clump together because of environmental factors, namely temperature and water availability

  12. Demography cont’d • Countries with the majority of individuals being of young age have higher growth rates than countries with a fairly even age distribution

  13. Demography cont’d • Population growth for humans depends on the same factors that determine population growth for other species: • 1. Birth Rate • 2. Death Rate • 3. Immigration • 4. Emigration • Formula: (br + ir) – (dr + er) = growth

  14. Demography cont’d • Fertility rate influences population growth rate • TFR is the average number of children born per female member of a population during her lifetime • TFR is very similar to an ecological term known as Fitness, which measures the total reproductive success of an individual during its lifetime • Fitness = lifetime x annual reproductive success

  15. Demography cont’d • Life Expectancy – number of years an individual is likely to live • Life expectancy has increased in industrialized nations • Stages within Demographic Transition: • 1. Pre-Industrial Stage – birth and death rates are high • 2. Transitional Stage – declining death rates • 3. Industrial Stage – lower death and birth rates • 4. Post-Industrial Stage – low, stable death and birth rates

  16. Stages of Demographic Transition https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nonCD5GR9bw

  17. Population and Society • Factors influence population trends • 1. country’s demographic stage • 2. national population policies • 3. poverty • 4. women’s liberation • 5. diseases (HIV/AIDS etc) • 6. famine • 7. political instability • 8. education

  18. Population, Evolution, and Eugenics At times, pure scientific research can be distorted to fit a specific social and political agenda Darwin and his theory of evolution is one such example Since the publication of his research various groups have used Darwin’s assertions to support the elimination of the intellectually and/or physically weak within the human population. http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2009/02/beyond-darwin-eugenics-social-darwinism-and-the-social-theory-of-the-natural-selection-of-humans/

  19. Population, Evolution, and Eugenics in the USA • Margaret Sanger was a vocal advocate for social engineering in the early to mid 20th century • Sanger advocated for the forced sterilization of unfit people based on intelligence, socioeconomic status, and race. • Sanger was the founder of Planned Parenthood • Planned Parenthood has for the last three decades performed over 300,000 abortions annually and received $363 million dollars in U.S. federal funds in 2009 • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h6pPsIXlXwI

  20. Population, Evolution, and Eugenics in the USA • Women could be forced to abort their pregnancies, whether they wanted to or not; • The population at large could be sterilized by infertility drugs intentionally put into the nation's drinking water or in food; • Single mothers and teen mothers should have their babies seized from them against their will and given away to other couples to raise; • People who "contribute to social deterioration" (i.e. undesirables) "can be required by law to exercise reproductive responsibility" -- in other words, be compelled to have abortions or be sterilized. • A transnational "Planetary Regime" should assume control of the global economy and also dictate the most intimate details of Americans' lives -- using an armed international police force.

  21. Population, Evolution, and Eugenics in the USA • The previous excerpts were from a 1977 book entitled “Ecoscience: Population, Resources, Environment” • Book was coauthored by previous “Science Czar” of the Obama Administration, John Holdren • What is government’s role in managing population?

  22. Population, Evolution, and Eugenics worldwide • Hitler/Nazis in Germany during WWII • Native American genocide – 11.7 million killed from 1500 to 1900 • Rwandan genocide • http://www.unitedhumanrights.org/genocide/genocide_in_rwanda.htm • Former Yugoslavian conflict: Serbs, Croats, Bosnians • http://worldwithoutgenocide.org/genocides-and-conflicts/bosnian-genocide

  23. USA • Maintaining due to immigration….legal and illegal • High abortion rate especially in urban areas • Maintenance may be short lived: http://washingtonexaminer.com/women-are-having-fewer-kids-and-demographers-dont-know-why/article/2549445

  24. Japan • Japan is beginning to suffer the effects of a national decline in birth rates • Japanese Health Minister called women “Birth giving machines” • https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-06-02/births-in-japan-fall-to-record-low-as-challenges-mount • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/6306685.stm

  25. Russia • Russia is also beginning to feel the effects of a declining birth rate • http://www.denverpost.com/ci_6624865 • http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/vladimir-putin/9078672/Vladimir-Putin-vows-to-reverse-Russian-population-decline.html • http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/timstanley/100200911/vladimir-putin-hires-boyz-ii-men-to-boost-the-russian-birth-rate-authoritarians-know-how-to-have-fun/

  26. China • China implemented a government program to combat the environmental toll they experienced due to high growth rate • “One Child Policy” began in early 1970’s • Widespread social implications due to program: • large number of abortions (many late term) • many children died of starvation in orphanages • couples “encouraged” to have only one child • Population growth did decline in intensity….. But at what societal cost? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H4OWJlyaHt0

  27. China Now China is encouraging its citizens to have two children per couple due to aging population https://www.cnbc.com/2017/01/28/china-population-crisis-new-two-child-policy-fails-to-yield-major-gains.html

  28. India • Country is grappling with a booming population; many women are aborting female babies and still others are forcing girls as young as 1 to go through sex change operations • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2008623/Girls-young-ONE-forced-sex-change-operations-India.html

  29. Other Countries Demographic Stories https://www.wsj.com/articles/as-u-s-slows-immigration-one-latin-american-nation-embraces-it-1516539600 https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/835661/Italy-migrant-crisis-EU-Europe-borders-immigration-issue https://principia-scientific.org/global-population-falling-as-human-fertility-declines/

  30. Birth Control • Co-creator of the birth control pill laments the development of the pill as it has caused a great decline in the populations of many European nations • http://www.christiantelegraph.com/issue4672.html

  31. Unintended Consequences • We as a society must be careful of how we address the myriad of concerns that face us as some well-meaning solutions can have devastating moral, ethical, and demographic effects • Social engineers have found it is much easier to encourage people not have children, than to have children