Unit Two Deer and the Energy Cycle
Information related to the text • New words • Phrases & Expressions • Warm-up activities • Language points • Group discussion • Exercises
Information related to the text 1. Deer and the white-tailed deer Deer are found throughout North America, South America, Europe, Asia and North Africa. There are nearly 100 different kinds of deer. Some deer live in grasslands where they group together and browse on meadow herds. Others live I forests and feed on leaves, twigs, buds and bushed. The female deer become pregnant annually in late autumn, producing one in three young in late spring or early summer. Fawns remain with their mothers for about a year.
Information related to the text The white-tailed deer is the most common deer in the United States. Those found in the north area the largest, measuring dour feet at the shoulders and weighing 200 to 400 pounds. The coat is shiny red in summer and blue-grey in winter. The underparts and tail are white. They live alone or in groups of one male and two females. They can run as quickly as 30 miles an hour and can keep as high as eight feet.
Information related to the text 2. Energy Crisis This phrase usually refers to a critical shortage in the supply of energy-producing fuels. Such as gas, oil, and coal. During the early 1970’s, the demand foe petroleum increased sharply, and western countries depended heavily on improved supplies. The situation became worse during the ARAB-Israeli war of 1973., when the Arab nations reduced oil production and embargoed oil shipments to the United States and other countries that supported Israel, causing an acute energy shortage in these countries during the winter of 1973-1974.
deer 鹿 romantic 浪漫的，幻想的 turn （ 天生）倾向 currency 通货，货币 ecological 生态的 ecology change (from one form, use, etc, into another); scarce 缺乏的 wildlife animals and plants which live and grow wild nutritious 有营养的 mature 成熟的。成年的 female 女（性）的，雌的 conceive 怀胎，构思 fawn a young deer less than a year old New words
region 地区；（身体的）部位 ample 充裕的 resource 资源 dependent relying (on another) for support male 男（性）的，雄的 antler 鹿角，茸角 deposit 存放，使沉积 doe a fully-grown female deer expend 花费，耗尽 excess 过量，过度 reserve 储备（物） timing 时机的选择 consume 消耗，消费 accumulate 堆积，储存 account 帐户；存款 depth 深；深度；厚度 safeguard 预防措施 internal 内部的；体内的 New words
Phrases & Expressions 1. go round : function smoothly 2. in the form of : 以…形式 3. in point : appropriate; pertinent 4. In (good) condition: in good health, physically fit 5. give birth to: bear; (fig.) produce
Phrases & Expressions 6. draw on: take or use as a source 7. Slow down；(cause to) go more slowly than usual; (cause to) live, work, etc. in a less active and intense way 8. turn down: 减弱，关小，调低 9. move about: travel around; go from one place to another 10. pull through: 使渡过危险或危机
Warm-up Activities 1. Go over the text 2. List the facts about the life of deer in the four seasons respectively. 3. Sum up
Summer: eat as much as they can, storing the excess in the form of fat; active in growing, reproducing or storing fat adult males: grow antlers and get fat adult females: give birth to young; produce milk fawns: become less dependent on their mother’s milk and begin to search for growing plats as food
Fall: continue to eat high quality food in order to deposit body fat for the winter Winter: reduce their activity, grow a winter coat of hair, and lower their metabolism; use the reserves of fat to survive the cold winter Spring: become active again
Language points • Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind…: others who are less romantic and tend to look at things more practically… turn of mind: natural tendency, disposition Examples: -- He is a man with a very peculiar turn (=kind) of mind
2. currency: the particular type of money in use in a country Examples: -- I have some British pounds that I’d like to change into Chinese currency. -- Though gold is still used as a standard of value, it is no longer used as (a) currency.
Ecological system (or ecosystem): a system made up of a group of living organisms and its physical environment, and the relationship between them. An ecosystem includes such factors as food supply, weather and natural enemies.
4. convert into : change into Examples: -- Coal can be converted into gas by burning. -- The hotel is said to have been converted into an office building. -- One last effort converted defeat into victory.
5. in turn: in due course or succession Example : -- Theory is based on practical and in turn serves practice. 6. cycle: a number of related events happening in a regularly repeated order Example: -- Some scientists conceive life as an endless cycle of energy conversion.
7. during times of plenty: when food supplies are abundant time: (often pl.) periods of time, more or less definite, associated with certain events, circumstances, persons, etc. as in “in ancient times”. plenty: the state of having a large supply, esp. of the needs of life Example: -- It was an era of peace and plenty.
8. excess: amount that is more than necessary Examples: -- Inflation results from an excess of demand over supply. -- The price is far in excess of what I can afford.
9. scarce: hard to get; not plentiful Examples: -- Good fruits is scars and costly owning to this year’s drought. -- Some animals are becoming scarce in our country.
10. reserve: sth. kept for later use Examples: -- They have kept a large reserve of firewood for this winter. -- We have enough reserve of food to last a year.
11. a case in point: a good example of what is being talked about Example: -- He is rather selfish. His unwillingness to help his brother is a case in point . -- A case in point of what is being talked about is the white-tailed deer.
12. mature: fully grown and developed Examples: -- He is a mature man who can make his own decision. -- It takes most fruit trees about 7 years before they are mature enough to produce good fruit.
give birth to: bear, bring forth Examples: -- The dog gave birth to four puppies last year. -- Mary is expected to give birth to a second child in September.
14. meet her body’ needs: satisfy the demands of her body meet: satisfy Examples: -- Jim could hardly earn enough to meet the family’s needs. -- In order to meet their expenses, many American students have to work part-time while they are studying.
15. This is good timing: the time is well chosen. Here “this’ refers to the female deer’s becoming pregnant in November and giving birth to young in May or June. 16. ample: plentiful, more than enough Examples: -- There’s ample room in the bus for more passangers.
17. an energy consuming process: a process that uses a lot of energy consume: use; use up Examples: -- The factory consumes coal at the rate of 400 tons a day. -- Steam engines consume a large amount of fuel.
18. resource: (usu. pl) possession (esp. of a country) in the form of wealth or goods Examples: -- Kuwait has huge resources of oil. -- We must make the best possible use of our natural resources.
19.dependent：relying (on another) for support Examples: -- Despite technical progress, food production is still largely dependent on weather. -- Tom has got a job and is no longer dependent on his parents.
20. deposit: put or store for safe-keeping; place (money) in a bank Examples: -- You may deposit your luggage in my room if you like. -- After the good harvest, the young farmer deposit some money I the bank.
21. accumulate: collect little by little Examples; -- To prove their theories, scientists must accumulated a large number of data as evidence. -- The naturalist has accumulated a large number of botanical specimens.
22. draw on: secure funds from; make use of Examples: -- My salary is paid directly into my bank account. -- This morning I opened a current account and a savings account in a bank.
23. internal: of the inside of the body; within a particular country or organization Examples: -- The bleeding must be coming from an internal injury. -- No country has the right to interfere the internal affairs of another country.
Group discussion In the text, the author mentions three pieces of advice given on the radio for conserving energy: 1. Drive only when necessary. 2. Put on more clothes to stay warm. 3. Turn the thermostat on your furnace down. Together with the other measures, these pieces of advice helped the U.S. to pull through the energy crisis of 1973-1974.
Now in our country, the conservation of energy is also a problem of great importance. One way to conserve energy is to increase thee efficiency with which we use our energy supplies. Have you any suggestions to offer for saving energy?
Reference: • Turn off lights when there is no one in the room and use appliances only when one really has to. • Use fluorescent lights instead of bulbs whenever possible. • Use washing machines only with full loads. (An empty machine uses nearly as much energy as a full one)
Design ca engines, appliances, and other items that operate on less energy. 5. Put stricter restrictions on buying cars and encourage people to take buses or ride bicycles. 6. Use heaters and air-conditioners only when necessary.
Exercise I Complete the following sentences with appropriate phrasal verbs formed from the verbs given below.
draws on 1. Mr. Mailer ________ his childhood memories for the material of most of his stories. 2. To remain in existence, the theatre must continue to __________ a state subsidy. 3. If I could find some way of _______ my father ____ I would; he is taking on too much work depend on slowing down
4. Chinese food is marvelous. I’m afraid I’ve ________ a lot of weight during my stay here. 5. We are talking business here. Would you please ____ your radio _____ a bit? put on turn down
Exercises II Replace the italicized parts in the following sentences with words or expressions from the text: 1. You should have thanked your uncle for the gift without being reminded. You must learn to behave more like a grown-up man. You should have thanked your uncle for the gift without being reminded. You must learn to behave more like a mature man.
2. If the run on the bank (向银行挤兑存款) continues, its cash supply will soon be exhausted. If the run on the bank continues, its money reserve will soon be exhausted. 3. It is convenient to have a checking account, but you must remember to put enough money in the bank to cover the checks that you write to settle your accounts. It is convenient to have a checking account, but you must remember to deposit enough money to cover the checks that you write to settle your accounts.
4. Is the Japanese yen still among the strongest in the world? Is the Japanese currency still among the strongest in the world? 5. Billy’s parents encouraged him to save his money. Hence, he has more than enough funds to travel before he starts college. Billy’s parents encouraged him to save his money. Hence, he has ample funds to travel before he starts college.
6. This book is on the basic principles of banking. This book is on the fundamental principles of banking 7. The Chinese nation has brought forth many national heroes and revolutionary leaders. The Chinese nation has given birth to many national heroes and revolutionary leaders.
8. As the children filed into the classroom, Miss Lincoln was rather surprised at their quite behavior. As the children filed into the classroom, Miss Lincoln was somewhat surprised at their quite behavior. 9. If the right kind of extracurricular activities are organized, those children who have a surplus of energy will have a chance to develop their talents much more quickly. If the right kind of extracurricular activities are organized, those children who have an extra of energy will have a chance to develop their talents much more quickly.
10. Dust and cobwebs gathered in the home while she was gone. Dust and cobwebs accumulated in the home while she was gone. 11. It’s not wise to change your money into U.S. currency. It’s not wise to covert your money into U.S. currency.
Exercise III. Translation 1. 比尔已经是个成熟的小伙子，不再依赖父母替 他作主。 Bill is a mature young man who is no longer dependent on her parents for decisions. 2. 这个地区有大量肉食供应，但新鲜果蔬奇缺。 There are abundant supplies of meat in this region, but fruit and vegetables are scace.
3. 工程师们依靠工人们的智慧，发明了一种新的生产方法,使生产效率得以提高。 Drawing on the wisdom of the workers, the engineers invented a new production method that led to increased productivity. 4. 他花了许多时间准备数学考试，因此当她获知自己只得了个B时感到有点失望。 He spent a lot of time preparing for his math exam. Hence he was somewhat disappointed to learn that he got only a B.
5. 我们有充裕的时间可以从从容容吃顿午饭。 We have ample time for a leisurely lunch. 6. 地方政府不得不动用储备量并采取其他紧急措施，以便渡过粮食危机。 The local government had to draw on its grain reserves and take other emergency measures to pull through the food crisis.
Exercise IV. Dictation Only a few century ago, people’s energy supply was made up almost entirely of wood and water. Wood was burned to heat homes and to cook food. Water was used to turn grinding stones. People had not yet discovered the vast underground reserves of petroleum. They had not discovered electricity. Today our energy supply consists mostly of coal, petroleum, and natural gas. These, in turn, produce electricity, which runs machines, heats and