html5-img
1 / 72

Fresh Water

Fresh Water. Chapter 14. Section 1 Water and Its Properties. Objectives: Describe the amount of fresh water on earth Relate the structure of water molecules to the physical and chemical properties of water Explain why living things need water

murray
Download Presentation

Fresh Water

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.

E N D

Presentation Transcript


  1. Fresh Water Chapter 14

  2. Section 1 Water and Its Properties • Objectives: • Describe the amount of fresh water on earth • Relate the structure of water molecules to the physical and chemical properties of water • Explain why living things need water • Generalize about the role of energy in the water cycle

  3. Skills Warm-up • Down the Drain • How much water do you use in a day? • Use the following estimates in your calculations: • Toilet – 20L/flush • Glass of water – 0.25L • Faucet – 15L/min • 5-minute shower – 75L

  4. Earth’s Fresh Water • Earth is the water planet – ________ of surface covered by water • Total Water: • ________ salt water • ________ fresh water in glaciers/ice caps • ________ water is underground • _____ is in atmosphere • Whatever is left - surface fresh water

  5. Put it in Perspective • Imagine ___________ of soda – represents all of earth’s water • Now imagine _______ of soda – represents the amount of usable fresh water • We must protect and conserve !

  6. Properties of Water • 3 Phases of Matter • ________ – has its own shape because molecules are held together rigidly • _______ – takes shape of container because molecules not held together as closely • ____ – fills its container because molecules not held together

  7. Properties of Water • Water is the only compound that occurs in all 3 ______ ___ _______ at ________ earth temperatures • Ice covered lake • Ice is water’s solid phase • Water underneath is the liquid phase • Water vapor above ice is the gas phase

  8. Water Molecule • Water’s chemical formula is _______ • What does that mean? • Water is a _________ molecule – the hydrogen atoms have a slight __________ charge and the oxygen a slight __________ charge

  9. Water Molecule • Since opposites attract: • The ___________ atoms from one water molecule are • Attracted to the __________ atoms from other water molecules • They “stick” together through ___________ __________

  10. Physical Properties of Water • Water gains and loses heat energy _________ compared to other compounds • Heat is the energy of ___________ molecules • It takes ________ energy to separate polar water molecules and get them moving • Water also ________ ______

  11. Physical Properties of Water • Normally a material’s solid phase is _______ than its liquid phase • But, water’s solid phase is ____ _______ • This is because water’s polar molecules can’t get too close together • Like charges _______ • That is why ice ______ on water

  12. Physical Properties of Water • Water has ________ _______ – its surface is a skin-like layer • This occurs because water molecules _________ each other • Gives water droplets a __________ shape • Also causes light objects to ________

  13. Chemical Properties of Water • Water is called the _______________________ • It can dissolve many other _____ substances • Think of all the things you drink (milk, lemonade, soda) that are mixtures of other things in water • This is also due to water molecules’ ______ – they attract other things and keep them in solution

  14. Activity

  15. Water Lab

  16. Water Cycle • The water cycle is a _________________of evaporation and condensation that controls the distribution of the earth's water as it: • ____________from bodies of water • ____________ • ____________ • ____________to those bodies of water

  17. Water Cycle • _____________– water vapor condenses into liquid water • _____________– liquid water is heated by sun’s energy to form water vapor • _____________– Water falls as rain, hail, sleet, or snow • ________– when water cannot soak into the ground – gravity pulls it downhill

  18. Water and Living Things • _________ is essential for all living things • About _______ of your body weight is from water • You can survive ______ without food than without water • 3-5 days without water • Several weeks without food

  19. Water and Living Things • We take in water by ________ and ________ • We release water in _____________, _____________, _____________, etc. • Water keeps us cool on hot days – heat energy from your hot skin evaporates watery sweat, cooling you off

  20. Water and Living Things • ______ use water, along with carbon dioxide and light from the sun for ____________________ • _____________ – process by which water move up through a plant eventually exiting through tiny __________ in their leaves • _______ __________ of water return to the atmosphere by transpiration

  21. Your Water Use • On average, each person in U.S. uses __________ of water/day – not including indirect uses

  22. Your Water Use • If you include all indirect water uses – the average consumption is over ___________________ • Indirect water use can include: • 200,000L to ____________ • 800L to ________________ • 500L to ________________ • 4,000L to ______________

  23. Your Water Use • Where does fresh water come from? • __________________ • __________________ • __________________ • __________________ • __________________ • All of these sources get their water from precipitation

  24. How Do We Return Water • Water from crops and plants – direct ___________________ • Waste water from homes/businesses – must first go through a _____________ __________ • _____________– septic tank separates out wastes from clean water • _____________ – pipes to sewage treatment plant where water is filtered and cleaned

  25. Activity • Discovery Education “Water Cycle Movie”

  26. Review Questions • 1. Describe in your own words what fresh water is. How much of the earth’s water is fresh water? • 2. Explain how the structures of a water molecule relates to three properties of water. • 3. Write a general statement describing the role of the sun’s energy in the water cycle. • 4. Draw and label a diagram that traces the path of a water molecule through the water cycle.

  27. Section 2 Surface Water • Objectives: • Describe three ways in which fresh water exists on the surface of the earth • Describe a water shed and its drainage systems • Predict what life on earth might be like if freshwater didn’t accumulate on earth’s surface

  28. Skills Warm-up • Rain Tracks • Based on your observations, what happens to rainfall that falls on buildings where you live? • What could happen that might change the path of the rainwater?

  29. Different Landscapes • Some areas are forests, some are deserts • Areas are different because of the ___________ ______________ there • The amount of water in an area depends on the amount of ______________________

  30. Running Water • Water from rain or melted snow can ______ into ground, ____________, or flow over as _________ • Runoff forms rills and gullies to flow into streams and rivers • Running water carries water back to _______ and lets water evaporate into air

  31. Streams and Rivers • Streams flow into rivers and rivers flow into oceans forming a _____________________ • From above, a drainage system can form a tree-like pattern • ______________ – a small stream that flows into a larger one • ____________ drainage systems have many tributaries

  32. Streams and Rivers • Rivers give fresh __________________ • Rivers transport __________________ • Land along riverbanks is good for ____________ because there is plenty of water and nutrient-rich soil

  33. Watersheds • The surrounding land area that supplies ______ to the streams of a drainage system • Can be less than 1 km to thousands of km • Watersheds that supply runoff to different drainage systems are separated by a ridge called a _____________ • Rocky Mountains make up the _______________ ______________________ • Streams to the _______ drain to the Atlantic Ocean • Streams to the _______ drain to the Pacific Ocean

  34. Standing Water • When running water reaches a low area in a drainage system, it stops flowing • This low area fills with water to become • ________ – form in large, deep depressions – sunlight doesn’t reach bottom • ________ – form in small depressions – sunlight reaches bottom • ________ – artificial lake built to store fresh water or prevent flooding

  35. Frozen Water • Most of the world’s fresh water is _________ • Near the poles, permanent __________ form • Snowfields turn into _____________ • During short summers, some of the ice _______ supplying fresh water to many areas

  36. The Wandering River • ___________ River is the 3rd longest in the world – has >200 tributaries and 4th largest watershed • It hasn’t always been in the _______________ • About every _________ years it changes course, cutting a new ____________ and abandoning its old one

  37. The Wandering River • In Louisiana, the Mississippi has been trying to change its course __________ to the Atchafalaya River • If this happened, the port of ____________ would dry up and the cities near the Atchafalaya would flood • The army corps of engineers began a huge flood-control project

  38. Review Questions • 1. What are three ways in which fresh water exists on the earth’s surface? • 2. Describe a watershed and drainage system. • 3. What do you think life on earth would be like if there were ne fresh water on the surface?

  39. Section 3 Water Beneath the Surface • Objectives: • Explain what forms groundwater and describe groundwater zones • Describe the movements and activities of groundwater • Predict changes in groundwater • Classify earth materials by permeability

  40. Skills Warm-up • Taking in Water • What happens when you water a potted plant? • Where does the water go? • On a global scale, a huge amount of precipitation soaks into the ground. • The amount of water underground is more than all the world’s rivers and lakes combined.

More Related