Keith Lambkin – Chief Scientist Valentia Observatory UCD Class Trip 8 th Oct 2010 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Keith Lambkin – Chief Scientist Valentia Observatory UCD Class Trip 8 th Oct 2010
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Keith Lambkin – Chief Scientist Valentia Observatory UCD Class Trip 8 th Oct 2010

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  1. From the Heights of Weather Balloons to the Depths of Earthquakes Keith Lambkin – Chief Scientist Valentia Observatory UCD Class Trip 8th Oct 2010

  2. Masters in Meteorology Class Field Trip to Valentia Observatory 2010 8th Oct 2010 9:30Welcome Work done at Valentia Observatory (Talk) Keith Lambkin 11:00 Coffee Break 11:30 International Phenology Garden, Synoptic Observations and Met Enclosure (Tour) Valentia Staff 11:50 Upper Air balloon launch and explanation of balloon launch equipment and tracking (Tour) Keith + Staff 12:30 Lunch 14:00 History of Valentia Observatory (Talk) Mike Crean 14:40 Tour of rest of Observatory [Magnetics, Seismology, Solar Radiation and Ozone monitoring] (Tour) Keith + Staff 16:00 Close

  3. Today Valentia Observatory Prevailing Wind

  4. MetÉireann Valentia Observatory Meteorology Geophysics Solar Radiation Geomagnetism Synoptic Met Ozone Upper Air Lightning Seismology Pollution Aerosol Phenology Today

  5. Synoptic Meteorology Surface Measurements • Dry and Wet Bulb Temperature • Pressure • Wind Speed and Direction • Rainfall • Visibility • Cloud type and amount • Synoptic code • DD95317001203200941250 • 81705 10104 20092 30170 40207 57010 75052 886// • 333 86704 88706 92446555 3004 50098 6999 N0000=NNNN

  6. Synoptic Meteorology Synoptic Meteorology Summary • Standard meteorology parameters recorded • [Dry and Wet Bulb Temperature, Pressure, Wind Speed and Direction, Rainfall, Visibility, Cloud type and amount] • Why? • To supply a snapshot of the current weather situation, for forecast purposes • Climate record purposes

  7. Upper Air • 4 Ascents per day at 06z, 12z, 18z and 00z • Measuring Temperature, Humidity, Atmospheric pressure, Wind Speed and direction. • Member of EUCOS(EUMETNET Composite Observing System ), GUAN(GCOS Upper Air Network) • Navigational reference systems: LORAN C(LOng RAnge Navigation) andGPS

  8. Upper Air

  9. Upper Air

  10. Upper Air 10th Oct 2008

  11. James Reilly & Valentia Observatory

  12. Upper Air Upper Air Summary • Valentia is the only place in the Republic of Ireland that launches upper air balloons for meteorological purposes • 4 accents a day • Why? • To supply vertical profile data to forecast models • Used to calibrate satellite sensors • Provide Tephigram chart as a forecast analysis tool

  13. Air and Rainwater Pollution Monitoring • Air Monitoring: • EMEP:NO2- (Nitrogen Dioxide) – daily measurements • EMEP:SO2- and SO4- (Sulphur Dioxide) • – using impregnated filters – daily measurements 2. Rainwater Sampling: EMEP :Na+, Ca+, K+, Mg+, NH4-N, Cl-, NO3-N, SO4-S, Conductivity– daily IAEA: Analysis – monthly EPA: Heavy metals – monthly pH: Daily

  14. Air and Rainwater Pollution Monitoring NO2 Pollution levels in Europe (Jan 03 – Jun 04)

  15. Annual average SO2 levels for the period 1980 to 2002 at Valentia Air and Rainwater Pollution Monitoring • SO2 and SO4 since 1981 – most extensive record in Ireland. • NO2 since 1989 – most extensive in Ireland From Bashir and McGovern 2004 Steve Smith - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  16. Air and Rainwater Pollution Monitoring Air & Rainwater Monitoring Summary • Valentia’s lab (& HQ Dublin lab) measures pollutants in Air and Rainwater • Why? • To provide excellent background count values for Europe • Monitor changes in pollution levels over Ireland

  17. Phenology Phenology: the study of biological phase changes in Plants and Animals Observed Phases at Valentia: Beginning of leaf-unfolding General flowering First ripe fruits Autumn coloring Beginning of flowering Leaf fall IPG & COST 725 A B C D E F G H I Photo: EevaKotilainen.

  18. Length of Growing Season at Valentia Observatory Phenology Adapted from Donnelly, Salamin and Jones 2005 • Phenology used as indicator for climate change • Most species now leaf earlier than in 1970 • An increase in 1oC average Spring temperature corresponds to an approx 7 day advance of the beginning of growing season

  19. Phenology IPCC 4th Assessment Report - 2007 Working Group II Report "Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability Chapter 1: Assessment of Observed Changes and Responses in Natural and Managed Systems - Page 113

  20. Phenology Phenology Summary • Valentia Observatory records phase changes on a number of ‘cloned’ trees • Why? • Phenology can by used as a climate change indicator

  21. Solar Radiation Measurements

  22. Solar Radiation Measurements

  23. Solar Radiation Measurements Malin Head Belmullet Clones Dublin Airport Birr Valentia Irish Primary Solar Radiation Network Irish TUCSON Solar Radiation Network

  24. Solar Radiation Measurements Solar / Terrestrial Radiation Summary • Valentia Observatory records ‘Direct’ ,‘Diffuse’ and ‘Global’ solar radiation • Calibrate Ireland’s Solar radiation network • Why? • Climate Records • Research

  25. Ground Level Ozone Ozone Ground Level Analyser Environmental Protection Agency National University of Ireland, Galway Analysis of surface ozone measurements at various sites over Ireland Tripathi O.P., Jennings S.G., O’Dowd C.D., Coleman L., Leinert S., Moran E. Publication Pending in Journal of Geophysical Research

  26. Ozone Total Column Ozone • Brewer Spectrophotometer #088 • Measures Total Column Ozone (DU) • Spectral instrument • Part of Global Ozone Observation System • Automated / continuous measurements • WOUDC & NDACC Tom McElroy, co-inventor (with Jim Kerr and David Wardle) of the Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer

  27. Ozone Ozonesondes Ozone Layer

  28. Ozone Evidence of increasing column ozone at a mid-latitude station at Valentia, Ireland (51.94o N, 10.23o W) observed through ground based, satellite, and ozonesonde measurements Tripathi, O.P., Jennings S.G., O’Dowd, C.D., Lambkin K.P., Moran, E. Validation of OMI Total Column Ozone using Ground-Based Brewer Observations Dimitris Balis, Ellen Brinksma, Mark Kroon, Vassilis Amiridis and Christos Zerefos

  29. Ozone Ozone Summary • Ground Level Ozone Network • Valentia Observatory records total column ozone • Brewer Spectrophotometer • Records vertical Ozone profile • Ozonesonde • Why? • GLO is a health risk for plants and animals • Monitor Ozone depletion • UV studies

  30. Lightning • Sferics : Radio Waves from lightning flashes (10-14kHz) • Arrival Time Difference (ATD) lightning location • Range Single Antenna ~ 10,000 km • Control centre Bracknell • Tolerance set to only study significant flashes • Location accuracy ~ 2 km over Europe ATDNET Wetterzentrale

  31. Lightning Lightning Summary • Valentia Observatory has lightning detection antenna which forms part of a international network administrated by the British Met Office. • Why? • Provide forecasters with information on storm movements • Safety – Airports, ESB, Intel

  32. Aerosols • World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) recommended to abandon Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements under the BAPMoN Programme • World Optical Depth Research & Calibration Centre (WORCC) 1996 • Precision Filter Radiometer (PFR)

  33. Aerosols Aerosol Summary • Valentia Observatory just started to measure & record Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) • Potential for a super site • Why? • Provide reliable aerosol measurements • Initiate Climate Models

  34. Geomagnetism

  35. Geomagnetism

  36. Geomagnetism • Member of INTERMAGNET– since 2001 • Member of MagNetE – since 2003 2005 Eoin Moran / Michael Crean

  37. Geomagnetism Starting in 1888 – Valentia is one of oldest operational magnetic observatories in the world Valentia Magnetic Data Used for: Ordnance Survey Ireland Irish Aviation Authority Compass Calibrations Solar Wind Research

  38. Geomagnetism Geomagnetism Summary • Valentia Observatory has one of the oldest continuous magnetic records in the world • Monitor the movement of the poles (secular variation) • Why? • Navigation (Ordnance Survey Ireland) • Aviation, Drilling • Research - Solar Wind

  39. Seismology www.astronomynotes.com P S

  40. Seismology • 1962 – 1999: World Wide Standardised Seismographic Network station in conjunction with USGS • 1999 to present: Broadband Seismic station in cooperation with DIAS

  41. Seismology Where Valentia seismic data goes to: • DIAS (Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies) • USGS & BGS • European – Mediterranean Seismological Centre • International Seismological Centre • Blacknest HAITI 2010 January 12 21:53:10 UTC Magnitude 7.0 Tonga 20 Mar 2009 7.9 magnitude http://seiscomp.cp.dias.ie/slmon/gifs/VAL.active.gif

  42. Seismology Seismology Summary • Valentia Observatory continuously records seismic activity • Why? • Forms part of a seismic network used to measure location and strength of Earthquakes • Watchdog for Nuclear testing • Early warning system Earthquake / Tsunami (future)

  43. Thank You

  44. Synoptic Meteorology Synoptic Meteorology Summary • Standard meteorology parameters recorded • [Dry and Wet Bulb Temperature, Pressure, Wind Speed and Direction, Rainfall, Visibility, Cloud type and amount] • Why? • To supply a snapshot of the current weather situation, for forecast purposes • Climate record purposes

  45. Upper Air Upper Air Summary • Valentia is the only place in the Republic of Ireland that launches upper air balloons for meteorological purposes • 4 accents a day • Why? • To supply vertical profile data to forecast models • Used to calibrate satellite sensors • Provide Tephigram chart as a forecast analysis tool

  46. Air and Rainwater Pollution Monitoring Air & Rainwater Monitoring Summary • Valentia’s lab (& HQ Dublin lab) measures pollutants in Air and Rainwater • Why? • To provide excellent background count values for Europe • Monitor changes in pollution levels over Ireland

  47. Phenology Phenology Summary • Valentia Observatory records phase changes on a number of ‘cloned’ trees • Why? • Phenology can by used as a climate change indicator

  48. Solar Radiation Measurements Solar / Terrestrial Radiation Summary • Valentia Observatory records ‘Direct’ ,‘Diffuse’ and ‘Global’ solar radiation • Calibrate Ireland’s Solar radiation network • Why? • Climate Records • Research

  49. Ozone Ozone Summary • Ground Level Ozone Network • Valentia Observatory records total column ozone • Brewer Spectrophotometer • Records vertical Ozone profile • Ozonesonde • Why? • GLO is a health risk for plants and animals • Monitor Ozone depletion • UV studies