Expressions of identity aspirations actions
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EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY – aspirations & actions. 1919 founded a newspaper, ‘La Paria’, in French and ‘Soul of Vietnam’ in Vietnamese to publish his views of colonisation and nationalism.

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Expressions of identity aspirations actions

EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY

– aspirations & actions

1919 founded a newspaper, ‘La Paria’, in French

and ‘Soul of Vietnam’ in Vietnamese to publish his views of colonisation and nationalism.

He always hoped that the US would help to free Vietnam. -made unsuccessful approaches to Wilson and Truman.

1920 he joined the French Communist Party.

Never wavered from the ideal of a free and independent Vietnam.

1923 – Moscow- adopted Leninism.

1924 - China communist groups.


Expressions of identity aspirations actions

EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY cont’d

  • 1925 - Revolutionary Youth League of Vietnam.

  • 1927 - nearly arrested

  • He travelled to persuade village peasants about his ideas.

  • 1929 - Hong Kong brought rival communist groups together as the Indochina Communist Party –the ICP.

  • 1930s he ‘disappeared’ - thought to be dead

  • By 1939 he thought the time for his nationalistic revolution was near - made moves to return to Vietnam.


Expressions of identity aspirations actions

EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY cont’d

  • 1941 founded the Vietnamese Independence League –Viet Minh.

  • This was to be a guerrilla army to eject the colonisers.

  • Took the name Ho Chi Minh – Bringer of Light

  • Borrowed ideas from Lenin,

  • Promoted land reform, improved working conditions, democratic rights.

  • 1941 he went to China to help fight against the Japanese

  • Arrested as a communist.


Expressions of identity cont d
EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY cont’d

  • 1943 – released, walked home to Vietnam.

  • 1945 took control during power vacuum.

  • 2nd September 1945 - rally of 500,000 people in Hanoi

  • Used words form the US Constitution to state his case for independence.

  • Began to eliminate his opposition.

  • Ho asked French and President Truman for help and to give the Vietnamese autonomy.


Expressions of identity aspirations actions

EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY cont’d

  • French returned in 1946 to Vietnam.

  • 1954 agreed to the division of Vietnam

  • In 1965 Lyndon Johnson offered Ho a settlement which he turned down.

  • Ho agreed to peace talks but he died during them 3 Sept 1969


Expressions of identity aspirations actions

CHARACTERISTICS

  • Middle class

  • Considered wise

  • Softly spoken and benign

  • Considered a gentleman

  • Called ‘Uncle Ho’ - fostered the persona of ‘avuncular Mandarin’

  • Enjoyed French songs

  • Humble demeanour

  • Smoked American cigarettes: only ever offered Vietnamese cigarettes


Expressions of identity aspirations actions

CHARACTERISTICS cont’d

  • Fluent speaker of English, French,

    Russian and 3 Chinese dialects

  • Attracted important and powerful politicians

  • Single minded and dedicated to Vietnamese Nationalism

  • Appeared to be celibate although actually not.

  • ‘In touch’ with the plight of the peasants

  • Wide appeal with his humanistic ideals.


Expressions of identity aspirations actions

CHARACTERISTICS cont’d

  • Secretive at times - changed his name up to 19 times.

  • Preferred Leninism to Marxism.

  • Willing to sacrifice all for his vision.

  • Never a committed communist but committed nationalist.

  • Now regarded by the Vietnamese as their greatest nationalist hero.

  • In 1975 - Saigon renamed

    Ho Chi Minh City


Contributing factors
CONTRIBUTING FACTORS

  • Born 19th May 1890 in Nge An to a middle class family

  • Youngest of three children,

  • Named Nguyen Sinh Cuong - changed at age 10 to Nguyen Tat Thanh

  • Vietnam - colonised by the Chinese - then French from about 1858

  • Ho learned Confucian philosophy

  • Sent to a French preparatory school.

  • His father was fired from his job - nationalistic tendencies - left family.

  • Ho learned that the French were vindictive.

  • 1908 Ho sent to Hue to study

  • Expelled - brought to attention of French Secret Police.


Expressions of identity aspirations actions

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS cont’d

  • Aged 21 travelled to see French ‘Liberty, Fraternity, Egalite’ -first hand.

  • turned down for a student.

  • Then travelled around.

  • Liked the Statue of Liberty

  • Impressed by US civil rights.

  • 1917 met the Overseas Workers Association in London.


Expressions of identity aspirations actions

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS cont’d

  • Left for Paris in 1917 (Paris Peace Talks of 1919).

  • He tried to get help to free Vietnam

  • Unable to talk to Woodrow Wilson.

  • Publishing gave him publicity in Vietnam.

  • Lived under the threat of treason.

  • Being Vietnamese meant always being occupied.


Expressions of identity aspirations actions

  • Year 12 Vietnam – Ho Chi Minh Poster available from www.schoolhistory.co.nz

  • Vietnam village photos courtesy of M. C. Kraft. Images taken between August 5 1967 through July 28th 1968.

  • These were taken when Kraft was assigned as a US Medic to the 1/27th Wolfhounds, 25th Infantry Division.