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Meeting the needs and aspirations of all students

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  1. Meeting the needs and aspirations of all students

  2. Up to September 2006 KS3 Age 11-14 KS4 Age 14-16 (GCSE) KS5 Age 16-19 For all Balanced Approx. 15% Most Double Award Balanced, 20% Some AS/A2, Some vocational courses, minority IB Majority have no formal science education post-16 Single Award, balanced, 10% Double Applied, vocational, 20% Separate Sciences, 20-30% Alternative courses

  3. Twenty First Century Science • A new model for KS4 science • Commissioned by QCA in 2000 • Piloted in 78 schools from 2003 • First students completed courses in 2005 • Model forms basis of all GCSE courses from 2006

  4. Things must be very bad …?

  5. Students’ views • 20% people deterred from science because of their school experience • 27% among people born between 1980 – 1988 Science in Society, UK Office of Science & Technology 2005

  6. Students’ views Jenkins, E, & Nelson, N.W. (2005) Important but not for me: Students’ attitudes towards Secondary school science in England. Research in Science & Technology Education, 23(1), 41-57.

  7. Students’ views Jenkins, E, & Nelson, N.W. (2005) Important but not for me: Students’ attitudes towards Secondary school science in England. Research in Science & Technology Education, 23(1), 41-57.

  8. Where’s the problem? “It is clear that the major problems lie at Key Stage 4. Many students lose any feelings of enthusiasm that they once had for science. If students are to be able to see the relevance of their school science, the curriculum should include recent scientific developments. Students want the opportunity to discuss controversial and ethical issues in their science lessons, but this happens very rarely.” House of Commons Select Committee on Science and Technology (2002). Science Education from 14 to 19. List of Recommendations.

  9. Implications for a new curriculum • A lot of the stuff is irrelevant. You’re just going to go away from school and you’re never going to think about it again. Osborne, J. and Collins, S. (2000). Pupils’ and Parents’ Views of the School Science Curriculum, London: King’s College

  10. Implications for a new curriculum • What should we teach? Osborne, J. and Collins, S. (2000). Pupils’ and Parents’ Views of the School Science Curriculum, London: King’s College

  11. Implications for a new curriculum • What should we teach? • In art and drama you can choose, like whether you’re going to do it this way or that, and how you’re going to go about it, whereas in science there’s just one way. Osborne, J. and Collins, S. (2000). Pupils’ and Parents’ Views of the School Science Curriculum, London: King’s College

  12. Implications for a new curriculum • What should we teach? • How should we teach? Osborne, J. and Collins, S. (2000). Pupils’ and Parents’ Views of the School Science Curriculum, London: King’s College

  13. Implications for a new curriculum • What should we teach? • How should we teach? • It’s all crammed in … You catch bits of it, then it gets confusing, then you put the wrong bits together … Osborne, J. and Collins, S. (2000). Pupils’ and Parents’ Views of the School Science Curriculum, London: King’s College

  14. Implications for a new curriculum • What should we teach? • How should we teach? • How should we assess? Osborne, J. and Collins, S. (2000). Pupils’ and Parents’ Views of the School Science Curriculum, London: King’s College

  15. curriculum pedagogy assessment

  16. Inspiration for a new model • “The science curriculum from (age) 5 to 16 should be seen primarily as a course to enhance general ‘scientific literacy’.” • How can we achieve this, whilst also catering for the needs of future specialists? Beyond 2000 (1998)

  17. Access to basic scientific literacy The first stages of a training in science for a minority for all The key problem (Beyond 2000) • The school science curriculum has to do two jobs. It has to provide: • There is an inherent tension between these aims.

  18. Concern for future scientists “respondents were concerned that pupils … … were not enthused by the content of the science curriculum … could not relate the issues they studied in science to the world around them. All these issues … were seen to result in declining numbers taking mathematics, physics and chemistry at A-level and beyond.” Sir Gareth Roberts’ Review (2002) SET for Success: The supply of people with science, technology, engineering and mathematics skills

  19. Humanities Mixed Science & Maths only

  20. Can a new model work? The pilot … “We find much in the analysis in Beyond 2000 with which toagree, but we do not have enough evidence to pass a considered judgment on its detailed recommendations.” House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology (2000). Science and Society, paras. 6.16-6.17

  21. Currently KS4 Age 14-16 (GCSE) Most Double Award 20%

  22. GCSE Science 10% Emphasis on scientific literacy GCSE Additional Science 10% or GCSE Additional Applied Science 10% for all students (1 GCSE) for many students (1 GCSE) The pilot curriculum model

  23. Benefits? • Emphasises that there is a core of science which everyone needs. • Recognises that students are different, and meets a wider range of student needs. • Each course can be designed to be ‘fit for purpose’. • Separate courses makes it easier for students to pick up additional science at a later date, if their aspirations change.

  24. Aims of the pilot programme • To make school science more attractive • to students, teachers, and parents • To meet the needs and aspirations of allstudents • relevant to different pathways

  25. Relevance for different aims • GCSE Science • ‘scientific literacy’ for everyone • appreciation of what we are, who we are, our place in the Universe • useful knowledge for making everyday choices and decisions, and forming a personal viewpoint • essential beginnings of understanding nature of science

  26. Relevance for different aims • GCSE Additional Science • start of training in science • deeper understanding of science explanations, more abstract concepts • skills of investigation

  27. Relevance for different aims • GCSE Additional Applied Science • start of training in science • deeper understanding of some science explanations • practical performance and work-related testing • data collection, precision, reliability

  28. Teaching for scientific literacy

  29. Principles for curriculum • Scientific literacy – a course for both: • citizens who will not pursue science • citizens who will become scientists • How do citizens meet science? • What knowledge and skills do they need to deal with this?

  30. What’s needed to make sense of this? • Some scientific knowledge (Science Explanations): • tools for thinking • the major stories of science • Some knowledge about science itself (Ideas about Science): • the methods of scientific enquiry • the nature of scientific knowledge • the relationships between science, technology and society

  31. Two foundations GCSE Science Ideas about Science (How science works) Science Explanations (Breadth of study) Teaching through issues and contexts; but ‘durable’ learning is of Science Explanations and Ideas about Science.

  32. Science explanations – examples Chemical change Materials and their properties The interdependence of living things The gene theory of inheritance Radiation The Earth

  33. Ideas about Science • Data and its limitations: reliability and validity • Evaluating evidence for correlations and causes • How scientific explanations are developed: the dynamic nature of scientific knowledge, acceptance of theories • How the scientific community works: peer review • Assessing levels of risk • How individuals and society make decisions about applications of science

  34. Mobile phones • SE: A source emits radiation. This can affect a receiver some distance away. • SE: When radiation is absorbed it ceases to exist as radiation; usually it simply heats the absorber. • IaS: Explain why it is impossible for something to be completely safe. • IaS: Interpret and discuss information on the size of risks, presented in different ways. • IaS: Explain what the ALARA principle means and how it applies in a given context.

  35. Modules Science Explanations Ideas about Science etc. Putting it all together

  36. Modules • You and your genes B • Air quality C • Earth in the Universe P • Keeping healthy B • Materials C • Radiation and life P • Life on Earth B • Food matters C • Radioactive materials P

  37. Pedagogy for GCSE Science • Engages with contemporary scientific issues: • relevant and stimulating for students • Much is familiar: • whole class, small group and individual work • students still do practical • BUT they also have more opportunity to talk, discuss, analyse and develop arguments

  38. Assessment rationale • Fit for purpose & not repetitive • Examinations • Short objective papers – two sessions in a year • objective questions • ‘Ideas in context’ paper – end of course • holistic understanding • pre-release stimulus material • Skills assessment (coursework) • ‘Case Study’ • exploring a controversial question • ‘Data analysis’ • interpretation and evaluation of first-hand data

  39. Case Study:Is it dangerous to use sunbeds? • “69 000 more cases of skin cancer each year in the UK. • Over 2 000 people die of skin cancer each year in the UK • Australia has more cases than UK. • UK has more deaths than Australia.”

  40. Where are we now?

  41. National curriculum model - 2006 GCSE Additional GCSE Additional Applied Science GCSE Biology GCSE Chemistry GCSE Physics GCSE Astronomy BTEC etc GCSE Science and/or Entry level For all students For most students

  42. First awards • First cohort results awarded June 2005: • GCSE Science 6022 students, A*-C 58.4% • GCSE Additional Science 2583 students, A*-C 79.6% • GCSE Additional Applied Science, 2297 students, A*-C 33.8% • In context, national data for England in 2005: • Science (Double Award) A*-C 56.6% • Science (Single Award) A*-C 23.7% • Applied Science (Double Award) A*-C 32.8%

  43. First awards • First cohort results awarded June 2005: • GCSE Science 6022 students, A*-C 58.4% • GCSE Additional Science 2583 students, A*-C 79.6% • GCSE Additional Applied Science, 2297 students, A*-C 33.8% • In context, national data for England in 2005: • Science (Double Award) A*-C 56.6% • Science (Single Award) A*-C 23.7% • Applied Science (Double Award) A*-C 32.8%