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Incidental Learning in different Pedagogical Approaches. Definitions. Significance of Incidental Learning. Incidental learning is the most important form of learning in every day life Mother tongue Every day motor skills Social knowledge Use of common technical devices
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Significance of Incidental Learning • Incidental learning is the most important form of learning in every day life • Mother tongue • Every day motor skills • Social knowledge • Use of common technical devices • Some people claim that even at school incidental learning is the main form • of learning. (Rogers 1995)
Incidental Learning in language teaching Incidental learning is the way how pre-school children learn speaking (and many other skills!) Several studies have shown the tremendous significance of incidental learning for language-teaching in a school context This holds for all ages from primary school children to adults and for First and second language learners Review in Elley, 2005
Implicit and explicit Grammar Learning Mean percentage score for of the two Book Flood treatment (shared reading and silent reading)as compared to trad.Teaching of grammar Incidental Acquisition of vocabulary Impressive scores for vocabulary acquisition (40%) of eight year olds were obtained when high-interrest Stories were read with brief definitions of key words (without explanations: 15%)
Incidental Learning in Computer-assisted Learning Environments -> Animation, Incidental Learning and Continuing motivation Rieber, 1991 -> How seductive Details do their damage: A theory of cognitive interrest in Science learning Harp & Mayer, 1998 -> Perceived Disorientation and Incidental Learning in a Web-based Environment Baylor, 2001 -> Incidental Learning during Information Retrieval: A Hypertext environment Jones, 2005 Animated graphics are favourable both to incidental learning and to intrinsic motivation Incidental learning processes (Seductive Details) can negatively interfere with explicit learning Incidental learning is inhibited by seductive details (‚detracters‘) and perceived Disorientation, and promoted by nonlinear navigation
Interactions between Incidental and Intentional learning Different studies find contradicting evidence on whether Incidental Learning and formal learning interfere positively or negatively: The relation between implicit and explicit Learning: Evidence for Parallel Development Willingham &Goedert-Eschmann, 1999 How seductive Details do their damage: A theory of cognitive interrest in Science learning Haarp & Mayer, 1998 Role of implicit and explicit processes in Learning From Examples: A Synergistic effect Mathews etal, 1989
Role of implicit and explicit processes in Learning From Examples: A Synergistic effect Mathews etal, 1989 Theoretical model Experimentation Learning the rules of an artificial grammar (800 trials learning 4x 2.5 h) according to different tasks:
Results Memory-instructed subjects acquired as much tacit knowledge of the grammar as ‚rule-instructed‘ subjects This knowledge is accessible Implicit learning failed when a more complex grammar was used But also in this situation subjects which in addition to the explicit task worked ‚implicitly‘ with the material outperformed the ‚purely explicit‘ subjects in rule detection.
Conclusions Incidental learning has been shown to be an essential factor in learning. It has also been shown to influence intentional learning in several fields. In spite of these evidences incidental learning has been neglected in research during the last decade and can be seen as „the forgotten dimension of learning“ (Reischmann 1986).
Hypotheses The following experiments aim at elucidating the interaction between Pedagogical approach and incidental learning
Experimentation Four groups of (12) students pass an animated learning sequence which covers the molecular basis and concepts of Diffusion, Osmosis and Plasmolysis. The learning sequence is divided into several steps at the end of which incidental learning is measured by a number of questions.
Questions ouvertes et problèmes Problèmes techniques • Vitesse des animations sur Mac • Programmation de certains paramètres en Flash Problèmes conceptuels • Comment differencier les animations pour les deux approches pedagogiques • sans trop compromettre la comparabilité des deux experimentations.
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