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Incidental Learning in different Pedagogical Approaches. Definitions. Significance of Incidental Learning. Incidental learning is the most important form of learning in every day life Mother tongue Every day motor skills Social knowledge Use of common technical devices

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Incidental Learning in different Pedagogical Approaches

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    1. Incidental Learning in different Pedagogical Approaches

    2. Definitions

    3. Significance of Incidental Learning • Incidental learning is the most important form of learning in every day life • Mother tongue • Every day motor skills • Social knowledge • Use of common technical devices • Some people claim that even at school incidental learning is the main form • of learning. (Rogers 1995)

    4. Incidental Learning in language teaching Incidental learning is the way how pre-school children learn speaking (and many other skills!) Several studies have shown the tremendous significance of incidental learning for language-teaching in a school context This holds for all ages from primary school children to adults and for First and second language learners Review in Elley, 2005

    5. Implicit and explicit Grammar Learning Mean percentage score for of the two Book Flood treatment (shared reading and silent reading)as compared to trad.Teaching of grammar Incidental Acquisition of vocabulary Impressive scores for vocabulary acquisition (40%) of eight year olds were obtained when high-interrest Stories were read with brief definitions of key words (without explanations: 15%)

    6. Incidental Learning in Computer-assisted Learning Environments -> Animation, Incidental Learning and Continuing motivation Rieber, 1991 -> How seductive Details do their damage: A theory of cognitive interrest in Science learning Harp & Mayer, 1998 -> Perceived Disorientation and Incidental Learning in a Web-based Environment Baylor, 2001 -> Incidental Learning during Information Retrieval: A Hypertext environment Jones, 2005 Animated graphics are favourable both to incidental learning and to intrinsic motivation Incidental learning processes (Seductive Details) can negatively interfere with explicit learning Incidental learning is inhibited by seductive details (‚detracters‘) and perceived Disorientation, and promoted by nonlinear navigation

    7. Interactions between Incidental and Intentional learning Different studies find contradicting evidence on whether Incidental Learning and formal learning interfere positively or negatively: The relation between implicit and explicit Learning: Evidence for Parallel Development Willingham &Goedert-Eschmann, 1999 How seductive Details do their damage: A theory of cognitive interrest in Science learning Haarp & Mayer, 1998 Role of implicit and explicit processes in Learning From Examples: A Synergistic effect Mathews etal, 1989

    8. Role of implicit and explicit processes in Learning From Examples: A Synergistic effect Mathews etal, 1989 Theoretical model Experimentation Learning the rules of an artificial grammar (800 trials learning 4x 2.5 h) according to different tasks:

    9. Results Memory-instructed subjects acquired as much tacit knowledge of the grammar as ‚rule-instructed‘ subjects This knowledge is accessible Implicit learning failed when a more complex grammar was used But also in this situation subjects which in addition to the explicit task worked ‚implicitly‘ with the material outperformed the ‚purely explicit‘ subjects in rule detection.

    10. Factors that influence Incidental Learning

    11. Conclusions Incidental learning has been shown to be an essential factor in learning. It has also been shown to influence intentional learning in several fields. In spite of these evidences incidental learning has been neglected in research during the last decade and can be seen as „the forgotten dimension of learning“ (Reischmann 1986).

    12. Hypotheses The following experiments aim at elucidating the interaction between Pedagogical approach and incidental learning

    13. Experimentation Four groups of (12) students pass an animated learning sequence which covers the molecular basis and concepts of Diffusion, Osmosis and Plasmolysis. The learning sequence is divided into several steps at the end of which incidental learning is measured by a number of questions.

    14. Time table

    15. Questions ouvertes et problèmes Problèmes techniques • Vitesse des animations sur Mac • Programmation de certains paramètres en Flash Problèmes conceptuels • Comment differencier les animations pour les deux approches pedagogiques • sans trop compromettre la comparabilité des deux experimentations.

    16. References LP Rieber 1991, J of educational Psychology Vol 83/3 318 – 328 Animation, incidental Learning and continuing motivation LPRieber 1991, ETR&D Vol. 44 1996, 43-58 Seriously considering play: Designing Interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations and games SF Harp & REMayer, J of educational Psychology 1998, Vol. 90/3 414-434 How seductive details do their damage: A theory of cognitive interest in science learning RCSchank & ChCleary, Engines for Education, Lawrence Erlbaum Ass. Publishers Hillsdale NJ, 1995 95-105 Incidental learning Jones, T. Incidental learning during information retrieval: a hypertext experiment Mathews, RC, Buss, RR, Stanley, WB, Blanchard-Fields, F, Cho, JR and Druhan,B. J of experimental psychology:Learning, Memory and Cognition Vol. 15/6 1083-1100: 1989 Rude, B.D. 2004, The case against incidental learning Elley, W.B. http// (Dez 2005) In praise of incidental learning: Lessons from some empirical findings on lan guage acquisition: 1997 Elley, WB Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories read aloud. Reading research Quarterly 24, 174-187: 1989

    17. Elley, WB, Barham, I,Lamb, H & Wyllie,M The role of grammar in a secondary school curriculum New Zealand Council for Educational Research 1982 SKerka 2000, Trends and Issues 2000 Alert No.18 Incidental learning Baylor, A.L. Percieved disorientation and incidental learning in a Web-based environment: Internal and external factors J of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Vol. 10/3 227-251:2001 VJMarsick & KJWatkins 2001, New directions for adult and continuing education 89 25-34 Informal and incidentaal learning Marsick, V.J. and Watkins, K. Informal and incidental learning in the workplace. London and NewYork:Routledge, 1990 WStangl Latentes, passives, implizites, inzidentelles oder informelles Lernen, 2004 Rogers, A Learning:Can we change the discourse? Adults learning 8, no.5 (Jan 1997): 116-117 Reischmann, J. Learning “en paassant”: The forgotten dimension Paper presented at the American Association of Adult and Continuing Education Conference: 1986

    18. Hillocks, G. What works in teaching composition: A Meta-analysis of experimental treatment studies American Journal of Education 93, 133-170: 1984 Harris, R. An experimental inquiry into the functions and value of formal grammar in the teaching of English. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of London: 1962 B Blandin, B Are E-learning standards neutral ? Proceedings CALIE 04: International Conference on Computer …, 2004 Hobbs, D.L. Aconstructivist approach to web course design : A review of the literature International Journal on E-Learning 60 – 65 : April/June 2002 Reiser, R.A. A history of Instructional Design and technology : Hisstory of Instructional Design ETR&D No.2 pp57-67 : 2001 Mayer, R.E. The promise of multimedia learning : using the same instructional design methods across different media Learning and Instruction 13 pp125-139 : 2003 Mayer, R.E., Heiser, J. & Lonn,S. Cognitive constraints on multimedia learning :when presenting more material results in less understanding Journal of educational psychology, 93 pp.187-198 : 2001 Milheim, W.D. How to use animation in computer assisted learning British Journal of Educational technology Vol 24, pp. 171-178 : 1993 Klauer, K.J. Intentional and Incidental Learning with Instructional Texts: A Meta-Analysis for 1970-1980 American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 323-339 : 1984

    19. Reber,A.S. Implicit learning of artificial languages. The role of innstructional set. J of experimental psychology. Human learning and memory,2 pp. 88-94 : 1976 Schacter,D. Implicit memory : History and current status J of experimental psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, 13, pp. 501-518 : 1987