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Environmental Impacts of E-bikes in Chinese Cities. BAQ 2006 Sub-workshop 16: Tailpipe Emissions from 2-3 Wheelers December 14, 2006 Christopher R. Cherry PhD Candidate Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Berkeley Jonathan Weinert PhD Candidate

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environmental impacts of e bikes in chinese cities
Environmental Impacts of E-bikes in Chinese Cities

BAQ 2006

Sub-workshop 16: Tailpipe Emissions from 2-3 Wheelers

December 14, 2006

Christopher R. Cherry

PhD Candidate

Institute of Transportation Studies

University of California, Berkeley

Jonathan Weinert

PhD Candidate

Institute of Transportation Studies

University of California, Davis

Chaktan Ma

Graduate Researcher

Institute of Transportation Engineering

Tsinghua University

Partnership with: Pan Haixiao-Tongji University

Xiong Jian-Kunming University of Science and Technology

Yang Xinmiao-Tsinghua University

outline
Outline
  • Brief Introduction
  • Research Objective
  • Approach, Methodology, Data
  • Results
  • Future Research
emergence of electric two wheelers in large chinese cities
Emergence of Electric Two-Wheelers in large Chinese Cities

Most large Chinese cities have banned or heavily restricted gasoline motorcycles in the city center. In response, electric bicycles and scooters that can ride in the bike lane have gained popularity and mode share.

Sources: Jamerson (2004) LuYuan Electric Bike Company (2006), Yu (2004), China Statistical Yearbook (2005)

emergence of electric bicycles in large chinese cities
Emergence of Electric Bicycles in large Chinese Cities
  • Several cities have (attempted) bans on e-bikes
    • Guangzhou, Beijing, Fuzhou
  • What are the effects of these bikes on the transportation system?
    • Environmental implications
      • Energy use and emissions
        • -Production and Use
      • Hazardous Waste-Lead Acid Batteries
    • Safety of electric bikes and others in lanes
    • Congestion
    • Increased mobility and accessibility
  • Compared to what modes?
research objective approach
Research Objective-Approach
  • Identify Life-cycle environmental impacts of e-bikes in Chinese cities (production, use, disposal)
    • Energy
    • Emissions
  • Compared to what modes? Bus and Bike
environmental impacts production
Environmental Impacts-Production
  • Production Energy Use and Emissions
    • Raw Materials
    • Energy intensities and emission intensities from raw material production
    • Assembly Processes
    • Assumes 5 batteries over lifespan, and 3 sets of tires (10 year lifespan)

Sources: China statistical yearbook (2004, 2005), China industrial yearbook (2004), China Data Online, Mao et al. (2006), Price et al. (2001)

environmental impacts use
Environmental Impacts-Use
  • SSEB E-bike Energy Use

1.3kWh/100km

    • 6.6% electricity transmission loss (national average), 6.1% in-plant electricity use
    • 50,000 km life=735kWh=0.09 tonne SCE
  • Emissions from Electricity Production
    • Kunming1: 52% hydro, 48% coal
    • Shanghai: 2% hydro, 98% coal
    • All China: 15% hydro, 75% coal, 8% gas, 2% nuclear
  • China Statistical Yearbook 2005, Energy Foundation China 2005
environmental impacts lead
Environmental Impacts-Lead
  • Battery Pollution
    • 95% of electric bikes use lead acid batteries
    • Lead batteries last about 300 recharges or 1-2 years (10,000 km)
    • China Lead Acid Battery Recycling/Loss Rates1
      • 4.8% Loss Rate During Manufacture
      • 27.5% Loss Rate During Mining, Smeltering and Recycling
      • 62% Recycling Rate
        • 36V (10.3kg), 48V (14.7kg) lead content
        • 36V-3.214 kg lost during manufacture, 3.914 kg lost due to low recycle rate
        • 48V-4.689 kg lost during manufacture, 5.586 kg lost due to low recycling rate
      • Electric bikes indirectly emit 712-1028 mg/km into environment!
      • If 100% recycled, still 321-469mg/km into environment
    • For Sake of Comparison-in the USA:
      • 4% loss from virgin production, 2% from recycling and 1% from manufacturing
      • A 7.9L/100km (30mpg) car running on leaded fuel emits 33mg/km

1Mao et al. (2006) 2Lave et al.(1995)

lifecycle impacts
Lifecycle Impacts

0.37 1.53 8.20 8.75 2234 38.87 50.67

what are e biker s alternatives
What Are E-biker’s Alternatives?
  • The net environmental impacts are relative to the next best alternatives.
    • 3 E-bike surveys conducted in Spring 2006
      • Shanghai, Kunming, Shijiazhuang
    • Vast majority of respondents would shift to bus or bicycle if e-bikes banned
    • Bicycles are most benign-zero use emissions and low production emissions
    • Buses are big polluters, but also big people movers

Image source: Cervero (2005)

bus emissions
Bus Emissions
  • Majority of E-bike environmental impact during production phase
  • Majority of Bus impact during use phase

1 Air Resources Board (2001, 2002), Nylund and Erkkila (2005), Embarq (2006)

other impacts of e bikes
Other Impacts of E-bikes
  • Other impacts:
    • contribution to congestion?
      • Are e-bikes any worse than bicycles?
    • safety?
      • Crash/fatality rate much lower than cars, slightly higher than bicycles
    • mobility and accessibility?
      • Buses cannot provide equal levels of personal mobility in Chinese cities-access and egress lost time
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Rather than ban e-bikes, target regulation toward problematic areas
    • Lead battery tax=“pull” industry toward better batteries
  • E-bikes in infancy and performance will improve
    • Need predictable standards/regulation for industry to invest in R&D
    • Longer lifespan and better technology
  • Could delay car ownership
  • Must consider benefits of e-bikes in policy analysis
  • Some things e-bike industry cannot fix
    • Electricity production industry
    • Raw material production industries (lead and steel)
future work
Future Work
  • Public Health Effects of Local vs. Regional Emissions
  • Investigate Full Life Cycle of Alternative Modes
  • Identify Regional Impact of E-bike Use and Project Future Technologies (battery, power plant) and Impacts
  • Investigate Other Externalities
    • Safety
    • Congestion
    • Accessibility
  • Questions?
  • Contact: cherry@berkeley.edu www.ce.berkeley.edu/~cherry