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Environmental Impacts of Manufacturing . Stephen P. Beaudoin Arizona State University  1999 Arizona Board of Regents for The University of Arizona. NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing. $1,000,000 Questions.

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environmental impacts of manufacturing

Environmental Impacts of Manufacturing

Stephen P. Beaudoin

Arizona State University

 1999 Arizona Board of Regents for The University of Arizona

slide2

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

$1,000,000 Questions

  • How does one assess environmental “soundness” of exisiting processes?
    • Waste Audit
  • How does one assess environmental consequences of processes?
    • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
  • How does one assess and compare environmental impacts of real and proposed/improved processes?
    • Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)
slide3

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Waste Audits - Objectives

  • Develop understanding of the actual operating processes in a facility or unit operation
  • Identify regions where waste is generated
  • Guide to environmental optimization of process
  • 6 steps
slide4

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Waste Audits (cont’d)

  • 1) List all unit operations in process of interest
    • CMP unit operations:
      • DI water preparation
      • slurry mixing
      • chemical mixing
      • polish tool
      • buff tool
      • wafer transport line
      • brush cleaning tool
      • megasonic tank
      • SRD (spin rinse dryer)
slide5

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Waste Audits (cont’d)

  • 2) Construct process flow diagrams
    • easy for case of CMP and post-CMP cleaning
  • 3) Determine resource usage
    • raw materials/feeds used in each process/unit operation
    • analysis of process specifications and actual process data
    • many subtle materials (air, water)
    • startup wastes
slide6

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Waste Audits (cont’d)

  • 4) Determine storage/handling losses
    • invoices can be compared to actual operating data
    • spillage, spoilage, bad feed wastes identified
  • 5) Quantify levels of waste reuse
    • easy for CMP (none)
  • 6) Quantify process outputs
    • products, wastes
slide7

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Waste Audits (cont’d)

  • Results
    • awareness of wastes, both obvious and hidden, in process
    • ability to optimize process to minimize environmental impact
  • Questions: waste audit of CMP/post-CMP train
    • Where do wastes come from in CMP/post-CMP cleaning?
    • What could have the highest impact for reducing waste?
    • Would process performance be affected?
    • Which change could reduce the waste with the least impact?
slide8

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Environmental Impact Assessment

  • Prioritization of concerns for environmental impacts of processes and appropriate planning to minimize impacts
  • Required by law in U.S. for many new manufacturing projects
    • mandated contents
    • interpreted and enforced by courts
    • government approves or disapproves project
    • public can challenge in court
  • 4 stages
slide9

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Environmental Impact Assessment (cont’d)

  • 1) Process screening - determines which aspects of existing or planned process must be evaluated
    • a process step that generates slurry waste may be more important that one that generates DI water waste
  • 2) Scoping - determines key issues to be considered
    • CMP generates basic wastewater
    • immediate concern: effect of pH on natural waters or treatment loop
    • long-term concern: effects of neutralization wastes
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NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Environmental Impact Assessment (cont’d)

  • 3) Statement Preparation - the impact of each waste is assessed
    • soil, water, air, wildlife, and people considered
    • evaluated over appropriate time scales
  • 4) External review - the community evaluates the EIA
    • independent review by local community, government, academia
      • ensures that the statement is accurate, objective
    • all EIA’s must be reviewed
slide11

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Environmental Impact Assessment (cont’d)

  • Mandated contents of EIA:
    • state of present environmental condition
    • features of project
    • effects of project
    • ways to minimize effects
    • residual impacts of project
  • Must be comprehensible to the general public
slide12

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Environmental Impact Assessment (cont’d)

  • Criteria for choosing projects that require EIA’s:
    • Lists: certain types of projects always require EIAs
    • Project thresholds: exceeding threshold values of project cost, production, or land use can mandate EIA
  • Sensitive area criteria - based on ability of environment to handle project and wastes
  • Matrix criteria - all project activities and impacts listed on a matrix
    • activities: site investigation, preparation, construction, operation and maintenance, future and related activities
    • impacts: physical, chemical, ecological, aesthetic, social
slide13

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Environmental Impact Assessment (cont’d)

  • Sensitive area criteria - based on ability of environment to handle project and wastes
  • Matrix criteria - all project activities and impacts listed on a matrix
    • activities: site investigation, preparation, construction, operation and maintenance, future and related activities
    • impacts: physical, chemical, ecological, aesthetic, social
slide14

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Life Cycle Analysis

  • Evaluation of entire life of a product
    • cycle = material acquisition to final product disposal
  • Tool to identify and evaluate opportunities to reduce environmental impacts of products, processes, packaging, materials, and activities
  • Important in ISO 14000, Product Stewardship
  • 7 steps
slide15

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Life Cycle Analysis (cont’d)

  • 1) Define scope and purpose of process
  • 2) Set system boundaries
    • primary systems: activities that directly contribute to making, using or disposing of a product
    • secondary systems: auxiliary processes that contribute to making or doing something in the primary sequence
    • Good use of LCA - to assess environmental impacts of changes in CMP processing methods
    • Question: What is a primary, secondary and ternary process for CMP?
slide16

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Life Cycle Analysis (cont’d)

  • 3) Inventory checklist
    • outlines all decision areas to be considered in the analysis
    • Guides data collection and analysis
    • Decision areas:
      • purpose, system boundaries, geographic scope, types of data used, data collection or synthesis methods, data quality measures, presentation of results
slide17

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Life Cycle Analysis (cont’d)

  • 4) Peer review
    • guarantees validity of study
    • internal or external reviewers
    • financially supported by EPA
    • possible comment areas:
      • scope/boundaries methodology, data acquisition/compilation methodology, validity of assumptions and results, method of communication of results
slide18

NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Life Cycle Analysis (cont’d)

  • 5) Gather data
    • depending on scope and boundaries, may have to go all the way to raw materials acquisition for each chemical used in process
    • remember to include data on materials required to maintain and use your product, and on the final fate of your product
  • 6) Normalize data
    • all data must be evaluated on a common scale (per wafer, per machine per wafer, per hour, per liter slurry...)
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NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing

Life Cycle Analysis (cont’d)

  • 7) Generate mathematical model of process
    • allows effects of changes in operating techniques to be compared in terms of their environmental impacts
    • Question: outline the LCA for an oxide polishing process
summary life cycle analysis
Summary: Life Cycle Analysis
  • By following the analysis presented, we now have a tool that can be used to evaluate the true impact of a process
    • can choose the best process from an environmental perspective
    • avoid transferring wastes from one medium to another