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TAXONOMY

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  1. TAXONOMY

  2. Taxonomy- science of classifying & naming organisms based on similarities. • 1. Aristotle- • developed first system of classification. • Very vague; NO LONGER USED • Divided & classified organisms as: • PLANTS • a. Trees (large) • b. Shrubs (medium) • c. Grasses (small) • ANIMALS • a. Land • b. Air • c. water

  3. Broadest Kingdom Phylum Class Carolus Linneaus- • developed system we use today. • developed 7 levels of classification Order Family Genus Species Most specific

  4. Carolus Linneaus • Developed binomial nomenclature- two word system for naming organisms (AKA- scientific names) • Scientific names reduce confusion of regional names • EX: Felis concolor is scientific name for puma, mtn. lion, cougar

  5. Scientific Naming Rules • Written in Latin- old language/never changes • Italicized when typed; underlined when written • First word is genus name- capitalized • Second word is species name- lowercase • Species name can represent: • Color- ex: Acer rubrumis a red maple • Who discovered it- ex: Friulawallacii is a spider discovered by Wallace • Place where discovered- ex: Aplysiacalifornicais a California Sea Hare

  6. DOMAINS • Scientists have recently added a new category- Domains which are larger than kingdoms. • Three domains • Domain Bacteria • Includes common bacteria • Domain Archaea • Includes extreme bacteria • Domain Eukarya • Includes protists, fungi, plants, animals

  7. Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae This is the classification for a human Genus Homo Our scientific name is Homo sapien Species sapien

  8. Mnemonic Device • Domain Dear • Kingdom King • Phylum Philip • Class Came • Order Over • Family For • Genus Great • Species Spaghetti

  9. Organisms are classified into their different kingdoms based on • Cell type • Cell structure • Number of cells • Mode of nutrition

  10. 6 KINGDOMS Monera 1. Eubacteria 2. Archebacteria 3. Protista 4. Fungi 5. Plantae 6. Animalia

  11. KINGDOM EUBACTERIA • EX: E.coli or Streptococcus - Prokaryote • Cell walls with peptidoglycan • Unicellular • Autotroph or heterotroph

  12. KINGDOM ARCHAEBACTERIA • EX: methanogens, halophiles- Live in extreme places • Prokaryote • Cell walls without peptidoglycan • Unicellular • Autotroph or heterotroph

  13. KINGDOM PROTISTA • EX: amoeba, paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp • Eukaryote • Cell walls of cellulose in some, Some have chloroplasts • Most unicellular; some colonial; some multicellular • Autotroph or heterotroph

  14. KINGDOM PLANTAE • EX: mosses, ferns, flowering plants • Eukaryote • Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts • Multicellular • Autotroph

  15. KINGDOM FUNGI • EX: mushrooms, yeast • Eukaryote • Cell walls of chitin • Most multicellular; some unicellular • Heterotroph

  16. KINGDOM ANIMALIA • EX: sponges, worms, insects, fish, mammals, etc. • Eukaryote • No cell walls or chloroplasts • Multicellular • Heterotroph

  17. Cladograms/Phylogenetic Trees • Show evolutionary relationships • Like a family tree

  18. Which two animals are more closely related? • Which two animals are least closely related? Chimp & Bonobo Gibbon & Human

  19. Classification key/Dichotomous key- • 1. Type of tool used to identify unknown organisms. • 2. Use a series of steps to identify an organism starting with its most general traits & ending with its most specific traits. • How to read one: • Read 1st two statements. Which ever is correct about your organism, follow the instructions. Keep doing this until you reach a scientific name. • See example on next slide

  20. Geospiza Bird W