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Korea and Vietnam

Korea and Vietnam

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Korea and Vietnam

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  1. Korea and Vietnam

  2. Korea: Between China and Japan • Koreans descended from different group than Chinese. They were from the Siberian and Manchurian peoples • 109 BCE Choson (earliest Korean kingdom) conquered by the Chinese (Wudi of Han dynasty) • Parts of peninsula • Koguryo (tribal people in the north) – resisted Chinese rule and established independent state- at war with the southern rivals Silla and Paekche • When Han dynasty fell, some splinter kingdoms in China remained in contact with Koguryo and fist wave of Sinification took place. Buddhism a key link. Chinese writing also introduced. Tried a Chinese-style bureaucracy.

  3. Tang Alliances and the Conquest of Korea • Korean division allowed Tang rulers to conquer it by allying itself with Silla kingdom and going against the other two kingdoms • Silla and Chinese arguing over dominance. Silla proves strong and they agree that it will pay tribute to the Chinese and be a vassal state- 668 withdrew their armies and the Silla were the ind. Rulers of Korea

  4. Sinification: The Tributary Link • Chinese influence peaked during Silla (668-9th century) and the Koryo dynasty (918-1392) • Turned into a miniature Tang dynasty • All sides happy with tribute arrangement- Chinese happy to receive tribute and kowtow and Koreans happy to have peace and access to Chinese learning, art, and manufactured goods- so, tribute system became major channel of trade and intercultural exchange

  5. The Sinification of Korean Elite Culture • Silla rulers rebuilt their capital at Kumsong to look like its Tang counterpart • Favored Buddhism over Confucianism- led to patronage of the arts • Pottery notable- esp. pale-green glazed celadon bowls and vases

  6. Civilization for the Few • Elite dominated by aristocracy, who didn’t intermarry nor marry outside of class • All classes beneath aristocracy were oriented towards their service. Buddhist teachings gave them hope for bliss in the afterlife

  7. Koryo Collapse, Dynastic Renewal • Common people rose up, outside invasions (Mongols in 1231)- led to a century and a half of turmoil • 1392 – Yi dynasty established and ruled Korea until 1910

  8. Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam • Preconquest peoples of the south in the red river valley had a strong cultural identity and did not want to be overtaken by their strong Chinese neighbors in the north. Partly able to resist because further away from Chinese center of power- spoken language not related to Chinese- intermarried with the Khmer (Cambodia today) and Tai gave specific ethnic identity • Nam Viet (people in the south)- first mentioned in Qin raids in 220s BCE as southern barbarians

  9. Conquest and Sinification • 111 BCE Han conquered them. They learned and borrowed from each other. Viets took cropping and irrigation techniques – so more food could be produced and it supported a larger population • Elite soon started attending Chinese schools, read Chinese texts of Confucius

  10. Roots of Resistance • Failure of Chinese culture to make impression on peasantry frustrated Chinese hopes of assimilation • Chinese thought of them as backward • 39 CE Trung sisters- revolt- stronger position of women who resisted Confucian ideals about women’s roles and status

  11. Winning Independence and Continuing Chinese Influence • Distance from China- along with motives for resistance and strong cultural identity led them to independence • 907 after fall of the Tang dynasty mounted massive rebellion to take advantage of chaos in China • 939 won independence but still borrowed heavily from the Chinese- administrative system, civil service exams, Chinese-style palaces • Scholar-bureaucrats never that powerful- competed with well-educated monks • Chinese legacy gave them advantages in southeast Asian struggles • Chams and Khmers- adversaries, which they managed to push out • End of 16th century- rivals and clashes between northern Trinh family and southern Nguyen family • Next threat would be the French and the Roman Catholic Church