Korea, Cuba, and Vietnam Challenges of Limited war . Korea. Divided Korea. After World War II, Japan’s former colony of Korea was divided into two occupation zones along the 38 th parallel with the Soviet zone in the north and the US zone in the south
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Secretary of State Dean Acheson’s speech to the National Press Club omitted South Korea from the US “defensive perimeter”
“But once war is forced upon us, there is no other alternative than to apply every available means to bring it to a swift end. War's very object is victory, not prolonged indecision. In war there is no substitute for victory.” MacArthur’s Farewell Address
Apr 19, 1951
Heartbreak Ridge with Bloody Ridge in background
Panmunjeom is the official diplomatic headquarters at the DMZ. North Korean guards, in brown, face their South Korean counterparts, in blue.
A Cuban crowd listens to Castro after his takeover
Che Guevara directed many of Castro’s Latin American operations until he was killed in Bolivia in 1967
Castro helping to repel the invasion
1962 British cartoon showing Kennedy and Khrushchev arm wrestling on top of nuclear weapons
The massive bombing campaign was plagued by restricted targeting and the non-industrialized nature of North Vietnam
Several Buddhist monks burned themselves alive to protest Diem’s religious oppression
Flag of the National Liberation Front
In 1967, Robert Komer, shown here with President Johnson, was selected to head CORDS (Civil Operations and Rural Development Support)and coordinate all pacification programs
Air Force Chief of Staff Curtis LeMay reportedly said, “Grab ‘em by the balls and their hearts and minds will follow.”
Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara is sharply criticized for his technocratic and statistical approach to the Vietnam War
Helicopters gave the US the ability to cover all types of terrain, maneuver over large areas, react quickly to enemy attacks, reinforce embattled units, and conduct raids into enemy territory
Returning from Vietnam after Tet, Walter Cronkite reported, “It seems now more certain than ever that the bloody experience of Vietnam is a stalemate” and then urged the government to open negotiations with the North Vietnamese.
Martin Luther King delivers his “I have a dream” speech in 1963
Country Joe McDonald at Woodstock, 1969
Gloria Steinem helped found Ms magazine in 1971
Democratic delegates protest the Johnson administration's policies in Vietnam at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
President Lyndon B. Johnson listens to tape sent by Captain Charles Robb from Vietnam, July 31, 1968.
Nixon was succeeded by Gerald Ford. By this point the US was traumatized by war-weariness and economic recession. Ford had almost no maneuver room to help the South Vietnamese.
Four students were killed and nine wounded at Kent State and two students were killed at Jackson State during protests against a number of issues to include US operations in Cambodia
Americans and South Vietnamese who had worked for the US are evacuated from Saigon