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Central Nervous System. CNS Receives Information. Interoceptors – sensory receptor that responds to … Proprioceptor – respond to limb position, joint angles, and … Exteroceptors – sensory receptor that responds to stimuli in …. The CNS Layout. Fig. 16.25. The CNS Layout.

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cns receives information
CNS Receives Information
  • Interoceptors – sensory receptor that responds to …
    • Proprioceptor – respond to limb position, joint angles, and …
  • Exteroceptors – sensory receptor that responds to stimuli in …
the cns layout
The CNS Layout

Fig. 16.25

the cns layout1
The CNS Layout
  • Remember, CNS is hollow
    • Central canal in spinal cord enlarges into ventricles within …
    • Cerebrospinal fluid produced by ependymal cells in…
    • CSF …
the cns layout2
The CNS Layout
  • Brain and spinal cord surrounded by…
    • Dura mater – outermost layer
    • Arachnoid – middle layer; CSF flows underneath in subarachnoid space
    • Pia mater – innermost layer; contains blood vessels to supply …
  • This is for mammals, but other vertebrates have less, with fishes having only one
the cns layout3
The CNS Layout

Fig. 16.26

spinal cord
Spinal Cord
  • Gray matter – nerve cells in the core
    • Dorsal horn – receives …
    • Ventral horn –
    • Largely for …
spinal cord reflexes
Spinal Cord – Reflexes

Also send and receive information to and from …

Association neurons transmit information to …

Fig. 16.28

spinal cord1
Spinal Cord
  • Gray matter – nerve cells in the core
    • Dorsal horn – receives incoming sensory info
    • Ventral horn – motor neurons
    • Largely for reflexes
  • White matter – outer nerve cells linking spinal cord areas and spinal cord to brain
    • Ascending tracts – sensory impulses
    • Descending tracts – motor impulses
spinal cord2
Spinal Cord

Fig. 16.30, see also Table 16.6

brain
Brain
  • Hindbrain: medulla oblongata, pons, cerebellum
  • Midbrain: tectum, tegmentum
  • Forebrain: cerebrum (telencephelon), diencephalon

Fig. 16.32

hindbrain
Hindbrain
  • Medulla oblongata – largely reflex actions
    • Houses nuclei of many cranial nerves
    • Ascending & descending pathways go through en route …
    • Controls many visceral and proprioreceptive reflexes: respiration, heartbeat, intestinal motility
  • Pons – enlargement of hindbrain of mammals; info from …
hindbrain1
Hindbrain
  • Cerebellum: involuntary actions
    • Modifies motor output, but does not …
    • Processes touch, vision, auditory, proprioception, motor input
    • Important for maintaining balance and …
    • Refines motor actions by links to motor control centers
midbrain
Midbrain
  • Tectum– roof of midbrain; receives visual and auditory input
  • Tegmentum – floor of the midbrain; motor output via …
  • Very prominent in fishes, many amphibians
forebrain
Forebrain
  • Diencephalon:
    • Epithalamus – roof of diencephalon; …
    • Hypothalamus – regulates physiological homeostasis (temperature, water balance, appetite, metabolism, sexual behavior, etc.); stimulates …
    • Ventral thalamus –
    • Dorsal thalamus – integrates …
forebrain1
Forebrain
  • Dorsal thalamus
    • Receives sensory input from …
    • Transmits directly to …
    • All somatic and visceral sensory tracts (except olfactory) go …

Fig. 16.41

forebrain2
Forebrain
  • Telencephalon = cerebrum
    • Pair of expanded lobes =
      • Cerebral cortex = outer wall of hemispheres
      • Subcortical region = rest of cerebral tissue
  • Consists of dorsal pallium and ventral subpallium
telencephalon
Telencephalon

Fig. 16.42