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Video Production 101 Camera, Lights, and Sound

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Video Production 101 Camera, Lights, and Sound. What is the difference between FILM and VIDEO?. FILM A strip of sequential, still images, taken on photographic film. (exposed to light and developed)

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Video Production 101

Camera, Lights, and Sound

what is the difference between film and video
What is the difference between FILM and VIDEO?
  • FILMA strip of sequential, still images, taken on photographic film. (exposed to light and developed)
  • VIDEOAudio and Visual information is converted into electrical impulses and stored on magnetic tape, or as a computer file.
how does a video camera work
How does a video camera work?
  • The LensLight travels through the lens, and is reduced to a cone-shaped beam.
  • CCD – Charge-Coupled DeviceThis part of the camera receives the light from the lens, and converts it into digital information. This will be stored on a tape, card, or drive.
focal length
Focal Length
  • Most video cameras have a zoom lens. Zoom lenses have a variable focal length, which allows objects to appear closer or farther away without changing the lens.
  • Focal length is the distance between the optical center of the lens, and the CCD or film.
iris and f stop
Iris and f/Stop
  • Iris/ApertureThe opening in the lens assembly through which light enters.
  • f/stopA number which designates the size of the lens aperture .
  • ISOA measurement of the camera’s sensitivity to light.
break for key terms 1
Break for Key Terms #1
  • Film
  • Video
  • Lens
  • CCD (Charge-Coupled Device)
  • Focal Length
  • Iris/Aperture
  • f/Stop
  • ISO
three point lighting
Three Point Lighting
  • Key LightPrimary source of light – typically a Fresnel spotlight. Generally all lights are set on the diagonal.
  • Fill LightThis light helps minimize the shadows caused by the Key Light. This light is set from the opposite diagonal angle from the Key Light.
  • Back LightThis light casts a gentle glow on the head and shoulders of the subject; this helps separate them from the background.
  • OmnidirectionalThese pick up sound in all 360 degrees around the microphone.
  • UnidirectionalThese pick up sounds from a particular shape or pattern surrounding the microphone. (Cardioid, Super Cardioid, Hypercardioid, Bi-Directional, Shotgun)
  • LavalierA small, hands-free microphone that can be clipped onto the subject’s clothing.

Most microphones in the studio will use XLR Cables.

basics of microphone placement
Basics of Microphone Placement
  • 3-to-1 RuleIf you are using more than 1 microphone, then the microphones must be placed 3 times farther apart than the distance from their subjects.
  • Inverse Square LawWhen you move a microphone, the change in volume is the inverse of the square of the change in distance.(Double the distance, ¼ the volume.)
break for key terms 2
Break for Key Terms #2
  • Three Point Lighting
  • Key Light
  • Fill Light
  • Back Light
  • Omnidirectional Mic
  • Directional Mic
  • Lavalier (Lav) Mic
  • 3-to-1 Rule
  • Inverse Square Law
types of shots 1
Types of Shots (1)
  • Extreme Close Up (ECU):The ECU, if of an individual, typically consists of their eyes, nose, and mouth only. ECUs can also be of other objects or body parts. ECUs are the most intense, intimate shot. They should be used sparingly.
  • Close Up (CU):Close Ups are typically of an individual’s head, or their head and upper torso. They show very little of the background.
  • Medium Close Up (MCU):The MCU is typically used in live, on-location news interviews. These are the two-shots that show the reporter and a subject standing closely together, from the chest up.
types of shots 2
Types of Shots (2)
  • Medium Shot (MS):The MS typically shows a subject from the waist up and includes more of the background than a CU. This is a more relaxed shot than any of the close ups, and can be used to diminish tension in a scene.
  • Medium Wide Shot (MWS):The MWS will show an individual from head to foot. There is more background seen than in a MS, but the primary focus is still the individual.
  • Wide Shot (WS):In a wide shot, you can still see the subject of your production, but they are not the main focus of the shot. The WS clearly shows the surroundings that an individual is in. The WS can also be used for dramatic purposes (i.e. the hero riding off into the sunset).
  • Extreme Wide Shot (EWS)No subjects are clearly visible, just the environment.
the rule of thirds
The Rule of Thirds
  • Avoid the natural inclination to center important objects. Instead, divide the shot into three rows and three columns, placing important items on the lines, or the points of intersection.
break for key terms 3
Break for Key Terms #3
  • ECU
  • CU
  • MCU
  • MS
  • WS
  • EWS
  • The Rule of Thirds
camera movement
Camera Movement
  • Pan (Left or Right)Pivot the camera left or right on the horizontal axis (the tripod or your shoulder).
  • Tilt (Up or Down)Angle the camera up or down on the vertical axis (the tripod or your shoulder).
  • Pedestal (Up or Down)Raising or lowering the camera on the tripod.
  • Truck (Left or Right)Moving the camera and tripod in a straight line left or right.
  • Dolly (In or Out)Moving the camera and tripod closer to or father from the subject.
  • Arc (Left or Right)Moving the camera and tripod in a semi-circular path around a subject.
  • Zoom (In or Out)Increasing or decreasing the focal length.
  • Take – an instant transition from shot to shot.
  • Dissolve – one shot gradually disappears to reveal the next shot.
  • Fade – A dissolve to or from black.
  • Wipe – A transition using a line, shape, or pattern.
break for key terms 4
Break for Key Terms #4
  • Pan
  • Tilt
  • Dolly
  • Truck
  • Zoom
  • Pedestal
  • Fade
  • Dissolve
  • Take
  • Wipe