November 2 Happy birthday- Elijah, Sabrina Home Assignment 1. Read pages 34- 35 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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November 2 Happy birthday- Elijah, Sabrina Home Assignment 1. Read pages 34- 35 PowerPoint Presentation
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November 2 Happy birthday- Elijah, Sabrina Home Assignment 1. Read pages 34- 35

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November 2 Happy birthday- Elijah, Sabrina Home Assignment 1. Read pages 34- 35
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November 2 Happy birthday- Elijah, Sabrina Home Assignment 1. Read pages 34- 35

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  1. Organ systems LAB!! Each Student MUST Read a Slide!1. Define: Cell, Tissue, organ, and organ system, homeostasis2. Describe two types of tissue3. What are two types of organs?4. Describe five organ systems

  2. November 2 Happy birthday- Elijah, SabrinaHome Assignment1. Read pages 34- 35

  3. Write your answers in complete sentences • Q 1: A (tissue, organ, system) is a group of the same kinds of cells that work together. Choose the right answer.systemorgantissueQ 2: Some tissues and organs work together like the members of the team. The parts that work together are called a _____________.cellsystemgroupQ 3: The mouth, teeth, tongue, stomach and intestines all work together. Therefore they are called the important parts of __________________.digestive systemcirculatory systemmuscular systemQ 4: Brain, heart and lungs are some of the important _______________ in a body.organstissuescellssystemQ 5: Different tissues work together to form _________ . cellssystemorgansQ 6: Different systems work together to form organs. True or false?falsetrue

  4. Levels of Organization • Identify cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems as levels of organization in the biosphere. • ELIGIBLE CONTENT • Identify the levels of organization in the biosphere including cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, • as well as organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems.

  5. Levels of Organization • Cell—Basic unit of structure and function in organisms. • Some organisms, like bacteria and protists, are unicellular (made entirely of one cell). • Some organisms, like fungi, plants, and animals, are multicellular (made of many cells). • Bacteria have prokaryotic cells. • Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals have eukaryotic cells. • In multicellular organisms, cells exhibit cell specialization. They take on specific jobs and look different from each other. • The cells also exhibit division of labor. They split up the work of the organism.

  6. Levels of Organization • Tissues—Groups of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function. • 4 major tissue types in animals • Epithelial tissue • Connective tissue • Muscle tissue • Nervous tissue

  7. Levels of Organization • Organs—structures made of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function. • Examples • Heart • Lungs • Stomach • Small intestine • Liver • Large Intestine • Gall Bladder • Plant Roots • Plant Stems • Plant Leaves

  8. Levels of Organization • Organ Systems—Groups of organs that work together to perform a specific function. • Examples: • Digestive system • Circulatory system • Respiratory system • Nervous system • Muscular system • Skeletal system • Integumentary system (skin) • Vascular system in plants

  9. Levels of Organization • Organism—A complete, individual living thing. • Examples: • A single person • A single plant • A single bacterium • A single protist

  10. Write your answers in complete sentences • Q 1: A (tissue, organ, system) is a group of the same kinds of cells that work together. Choose the right answer.systemorgantissueQ 2: Some tissues and organs work together like the members of the team. The parts that work together are called a _____________.cellsystemgroupQ 3: The mouth, teeth, tongue, stomach and intestines all work together. Therefore they are called the important parts of __________________.digestive systemcirculatory systemmuscular systemQ 4: Brain, heart and lungs are some of the important _______________ in a body.organstissuescellssystemQ 5: Different tissues work together to form _________ . cellssystemorgansQ 6: Different systems work together to form organs. True or false?falsetrue

  11. MAK y MO Body andPrinciples of Regulation

  12. Organization of Vertebrate Body There are four levels of organization: 1. Cells 2. Tissues 3. Organs 4. Organ systems Bodies of vertebrates are composed of different cell types -Humans have 210 15

  13. Organization of Vertebrate Body Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function In adult vertebrates, there are four primary tissues -Epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve 16

  14. Organization of Vertebrate Body Organs are combinations of different tissues that form a structural and functional unit Organ systems are groups of organs that cooperate to perform the major activities of the body -The vertebrate body contains 11 principal organ systems 17

  15. Organization of Vertebrate Body NO Thank you! 18

  16. Epithelial Tissue An epithelial membrane, or epithelium, covers every surface of the vertebrate body -Can come from any of the 3 germ layers -Some epithelia change into glands Cells of epithelia are tightly bound together -Provide a protective barrier Epithelia possess remarkable regenerative powers replacing cells throughout life 19

  17. Epithelial Tissue Two general classes -Simple = One layer thick -Stratified = Several layers thick Subdivided into: -Squamous cells = Flat -Cuboidal cells = Cube-shaped -Columnar cells = Cylinder-shaped 20

  18. Simple Epithelium Simple squamous epithelium -Lines lungs and blood capillaries Simple cuboidal epithelium -Lines kidney tubules and several glands Simple columnar epithelium -Lines airways of respiratory tract and most of the gastrointestinal tract -Contains goblet cells: secrete mucus 21

  19. Where do find Epithelial tissue?List two places to find Epithelial tissue 22

  20. Simple Epithelium 23

  21. Epithelial tissue Glands of vertebrates form -Exocrine glands -Connected to epithelium by a duct -Sweat, sebaceous and salivary glands -Endocrine glands -Ductless; lost duct during development -Secretions (hormones) enter blood 24

  22. Stratified Epithelium 25

  23. Connective Tissue Proper 26

  24. Connective Tissue Proper Adipose cells (fat cells) also occur in loose connective tissue -Develop in large groups in certain areas, forming adipose tissue 27

  25. Connective Tissue Proper -Dense regular connective tissue -Makes up tendons and ligaments 28

  26. Special Connective Tissue Bone -Osteocytes (bone cells) remain alive in a matrix hardened with calcium phosphate -Communicate through canaliculi Blood -Extracellular material is the fluid plasma -Erythrocytes = red blood cells -Leukocytes = white blood cells -Thrombocytes = platelets 29

  27. Special Connective Tissue 30

  28. Muscle Tissue Muscles are the motors of vertebrate bodies -Three kinds: smooth, skeletal and cardiac -Skeletal and cardiac muscles are also known as striated muscles -Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, whereas contraction of the other two is involuntary 31

  29. Muscle Tissue Smooth muscles are found in walls of blood vessels and visceral organs -Cells are mono-nucleated Skeletal muscles are usually attached to bone by tendons, so muscle contraction causes bones to move -Muscle fibers (cells) are multi-nucleated -Contract by means of myofibrils, which contain ordered actin & myosin filaments 32

  30. Muscle Tissue Cardiac muscle is composed of smaller, interconnected cells -Each with a single nucleus -Interconnections appear as dark lines called intercalated disks -Enable cardiac muscle cells to form a single functioning unit 33

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  32. Nerve Tissue Cells include neurons and their supporting cells, called neuroglia Most neurons consist of three parts -Cell body: contains the nucleus -Dendrites: highly branched extensions -Conduct electrical impulses toward the cell body -Axon: single cytoplasmic extension -Conducts impulses away from cell body 35

  33. Nerve Tissue Neuroglia do not conduct electrical impulses -Support and insulate neurons and eliminate foreign materials in and around neurons -Associate with axon to form an insulating cover called the myelin sheath -Gaps, known as nodes of Ranvier, are involved in acceleration of impulses 36

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  36. Nerve Tissue Nervous system is divided into: -Central nervous system (CNS) -Brain and spinal cord -Integration and interpretation of input -Peripheral nervous system (PNS) -Nerves and ganglia (collections of cell bodies) -Communication of signal to body 39

  37. Overview of Organ Systems Communication and integration -Three organ systems detect external stimuli and coordinate the body’s responses -Nervous, sensory and endocrine systems Support and movement -The musculoskeletalsystem consists of two interrelated organ systems 40

  38. Overview of Organ Systems Regulation and maintenance -Four organ systems regulate and maintain the body’s chemistry -Digestive, circulatory, respiratory and urinary systems Defense -The body defends itself with two organ systems: integumentary and immune 41

  39. Overview of Organ Systems NO Thank you! 42

  40. Overview of Organ Systems NO Thank you! 43

  41. Overview of Organ Systems NO Thank you! 44

  42. Overview of Organ Systems 45

  43. Overview of Organ Systems NO Thank you! 46

  44. Overview of Organ Systems NO Thank you! 47

  45. Overview of Organ Systems NO Thank you! 48

  46. Homeostasis As animals have evolved, specialization of body structures has increased For cells to function efficiently and interact properly, internal body conditions must be relatively constant -The dynamic constancy of the internal environment is called homeostasis -It is essential for life 49

  47. Homeostasis Humans have set points for body temperature, blood glucose concentrations, electrolyte (ion) concentration, tendon tension, etc. We are endothermic: can maintain a relatively constant body temperature (37oC or 98.6oF) -Changes in body temperature are detected by the hypothalamus in the brain 50