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Personal Health. Chapter 7. video. Lesson 1 Healthy skin, Hair and nails. Function of the Skin: It is the bodies single largest organ First line of defense from infectious diseases

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lesson 1 healthy skin hair and nails
Lesson 1Healthy skin, Hair and nails
  • Function of the Skin:
  • It is the bodies single largest organ
  • First line of defense from infectious diseases
  • Cushion internal tissues and organs
healthy skin
Healthy Skin
  • Sweat Glands- structures within the skin that secrete perspiration through ducts to pores on the skin’s surface
  • Should wash face with soap and water every morning
  • Eat a well balanced diet
      • Vitamin A helps promote health skin
        • Milk, egg yolk, liver, green leafy and yellow vegetables
skin and the sun
Skin and the sun
  • Ultraviolet Rays (UV) are light rays from the sun
      • Two types: Short rays- most intense during the middle of the day

Long rays- Most intense in the morning and late afternoon

      • Up to 80 percent can penetrate haze, light clouds or fog
      • They can also be reflected of the ground, sand, water and snow
      • Do not judge sunburn by how red you are, takes 2 to 8 hours for it to show
body piercing and tattooing
Body Piercing and Tattooing
  • Special Concern for the risk of hepatitis or HIV from dirty needles
      • Hepatitis- swelling and inflammation of the liver. It is not a condition, but is often used to refer to a viral infection of the liver.
      • HIV- (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) damages your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight the organisms that cause disease.
skin problems
Skin Problems
  • Acne- clogging of the pores of the skin
      • Can affect some adults as well
  • Sebaceous Glands- Structures within in the skin that produce an oily secretion called sebum.
        • Keeping the skin clean is the most important treatment for acne and should be washed twice daily
        • Picking at or squeezing pimples can spread the infection and cause scarring
your hair
Your Hair
  • You have 100,000 to 200,000 hairs on your head alone
      • Follicles – tiny pits in the skin
      • Brushing your hair can keep dirt from building up and should was hair regularly
      • Dandruff- a condition in which the outer layer of dead skin cells is shed from the scalp.
      • Head Lice- small, wingless insects that live on and suck blood from the scalp.
        • Make the scalp itchy and can cause infection
        • Can be spread from person to person
your nails
Your Nails
  • Dead Cells that grow from outer layer of your skin
  • Want to keep you nails evenly trimmed but don’t cut them to low because that increases the chance for skin infection and ingrown nails
lesson 2 healthy teeth and mouth
Lesson 2Healthy Teeth and mouth
  • Your Teeth
  • The single most noticeable contributor to the appearance of your mouth and face.
  • Form the shape and structure of your mouth
parts of the tooth
Parts of the tooth
  • Periodontium - Area immediately around the teeth
      • Made up of the gums, periodontal ligament, and the jawbone
      • These structures support the teeth
  • Pulp – the living tissue inside the tooth
  • Three major parts make up the tooth:
      • The root
      • The neck
      • The crown
healthy teeth and mouth
Healthy Teeth and Mouth
  • Plaque – a sticky, colorless film that acts on sugar to form acids that destroy tooth enamel and irritate gums
        • Flossing removes the plaque
  • Besides brushing and flossing, regular visits to the dentist are the next most important
  • Try to cut down on sugary food consumption
  • Foods rich in phosphorus and Vitamins C and D can strengthen teeth and gums
periodontal disease
Periodontal Disease
  • Periodontal Disease- an inflammation of the periodontal structures
      • Almost entirely preventable
  • It is primarily the result of destructive action of bacteria in the mouth
  • The bacteria form plaque and unless removed once every 24 to 36 hours, it can harden into Tartar
  • Tartar- a hard, crust like substance
  • It will lead to tooth decay as the plaque eats into the enamel
  • The tooth will become more sensitive as the decay reaches the pulp and exposes the nerve
  • Infection can spread if the tooth is not treated
other problems of the teeth and mouth
Other problems of the teeth and mouth
  • Halitosis- medical term for bad breath
  • Gingivitis- Disorder in which the gums become red and swollen and bleed easy
        • If gingivitis goes untreated it can lead to periodontitis
  • Periodontitis- results in swollen, tender or bleeding gums. Bone surrounding the teeth is gradually destroyed, causing teeth to become loose and possibly fall out
  • Malocclusion- Condition in which the teeth of the upper and lower teeth do not align properly. It can lead to decay and disease
lesson 3 healthy eyes
Lesson 3Healthy eyes
  • More than 80 percent of the information you receive about the environment around you comes by way of your eyes.
  • Your eyes have more than a million electrical connections and can distinguish nearly 8 million differences in color.
  • Lacrimal Gland- the gland responsible for producing tears
      • Tears are made mostly of water and a small amount of salt and mucus
parts of the eye
Parts of the eye
  • The eye is made up of two parts:
        • Optic Nerve
        • Eyeball Wall
  • Sclera- The tough, white outer coat of the eye
  • Choroid- The middle layer of the eyeball wall
  • Retina- The light-sensitive membrane on which images are cast by the cornea and lens
  • Vision starts at the retina
  • Light rays pass through the cornea and then are directed through the pupil
  • The lens will bulge for things that are near and flatten for things that are distant
  • Rods and Cones change the visual information into nerve impulses
  • Then these impulses pass through the optic nerve to the brain
healthy eyes
Healthy Eyes
  • Sensible eye care begins with regular check ups by trained eye care professionals
  • If corrective lenses have been prescribed for you, wear them
  • Take breaks from using your eyes, especially when working at a computer
  • Try to avoid rubbing your eyes
  • Avoid direct sun or bright light, or wear sunglasses
  • Wear protective goggles or glasses when engaging in activity or sport that could cause an eye injury
eye problems
Eye problems
  • Even with regular eye care, problems of the eye can occur.
  • Can be divided into 2 types:
        • Vision problems
        • Diseases of the eye
vision problems
Vision problems
  • Two most common problems are:
  • Nearsightedness – Condition in which light rays are focused in front of the retina rather than on it
  • Farsightedness – occurs when the light rays are focused behind the retina
  • Other problems:
  • Astigmatism
diseases of the eye
Diseases of the eye
  • Most serious diseases of the eye:
  • Cataracts- Clouding of the lens, which causes blurring or hazy vision. Only treatment is to surgically remove the lens and replace it with an artificially.
  • Glaucoma- condition in which pressure of the fluid in the eye is so high that it damages the optic nerve and may result in blindness
  • Detached Retina- the retina may become separated from the outer layers of the eye. Can happen by natural degeneration or from injury
healthy ears
Healthy ears
  • Parts of the ear:The ear extends deep into the skull and has 3 main parts
  • The Outer Ear
  • The Middle Ear
  • The Inner Ear
the outer ear
The outer ear
  • Know technically as the Auricle; this is the familiar fleshy, curved part attached to each side of the head
  • External Auditory Canal- Passageway about one inch long that leads to the eardrum
      • The canal is lined with fine hairs and tiny wax-producing glands that protect the ear by trapping dust
the middle ear
The Middle Ear
  • Ossicles- three small bones linked together that connect the eardrum with the inner ear
  • Malleus (hammer)- it is attached to the eardrum and is the largest of the three bones
  • Incus (Anvil)- connects to the malleus
  • Stapes (Stirrup)- stirrup-shaped and attaches to the inner ear
the inner ear
The inner ear
  • Labyrinth (inner ear)- consists of a maze of winding passages divided into 3 parts
      • Cochlea
      • Vestibule
      • Semicircular Canals
  • Semicircular canals in your ears provide much of the brain’s information about balance.
      • At each end of the canals is an organ called the crista.
      • It contains many tiny hairs bathed in fluid.
healthy ears1
Healthy ears
  • Important to keep clean them regularly and protect them against weather, especially cold
  • Clean outer ears with cotton swabs, never push it into the ear.
        • Never put sharp objects into your ear
  • Avoid loud noises when possible, and make sure you wear protection
problems of the ear
Problems of the ear
  • Deafness is a complete or partial inability to hear.
  • Total deafness is rare and is usually congenital or present from birth
  • All deafness is one of two types:
      • Conductive
      • Sensorineural
  • Sound waves are not passed from the outer to the inner ear.
  • Can be caused by damage to the ear drums or earwax blocking the auditory canal
  • Middle ear infection may lead to rupture of the eardrum
  • Otosclerosis- Hereditary disorder in which an overgrowth of bone causes the ossicles to lose their ability to move
  • Sounds reach the inner ear are not sent to the brain.
  • Can be a result of damage to the cochlea, to the auditory nerve or part of the brain
  • Tinnitus- condition in which a ringing, buzzing, whistling , hissing or other noise is heard in the ear in the absence of external sound
  • About 50 million Americans have tinnitus
  • Overexposure to loud noise is the most common cause of tinnitus
  • Steps to protect your ear:
      • Lower volume of the source of the noise
      • Wear earplugs
      • Limit time exposed to loud noises