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Improved Nitric Acid Production via Cobalt Oxide Catalysis for use in Ammonia-based Fertilizers PowerPoint Presentation
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Improved Nitric Acid Production via Cobalt Oxide Catalysis for use in Ammonia-based Fertilizers

Improved Nitric Acid Production via Cobalt Oxide Catalysis for use in Ammonia-based Fertilizers

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Improved Nitric Acid Production via Cobalt Oxide Catalysis for use in Ammonia-based Fertilizers

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  1. Improved Nitric Acid Production via Cobalt Oxide Catalysis for use in Ammonia-based Fertilizers University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Chemical Engineering CHE 397 Senior Design II April 24, 2012 Mentor: Bill Keesom Thomas Calabrese (Team Leader) Cory Listner Hakan Somuncu David Sonna Kelly Zenger

  2. Today’s Agenda • Recap of Questions from the Previous Meeting • Project Overview • Design Basis • Block Flow Diagram • Process Flow Diagram • Catalyst Choice • Environmental Issues Review • Economics • Process Safety Review • Report

  3. Project Overview • The nitric acid plant will be located in the Bakken Formation of the Williston Basin, located in Northwest North Dakota. • Over 1.85 trillion cubic feet natural gas 3

  4. Project Overview • Wellhead gas will be purified by the Gas Purification Team and sent to the Ammonia Team. • Ammonia Team will produce ammonia and send it to the Nitric Acid Team. • Nitric Acid Team will convert ammonia to nitric acid. • Nitric acid will be sent to Ammonium Nitrate Team

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  6. Design Basis • Produce 3,289 TPD of 63% wt. nitric acid solution (~14M) • Starting Reagents • Ammonia (NH3) – 571.5 TPD • Air – 10,332 TPD • Products • 63% wt. Nitric Acid Solution (HNO3) - 3,289 TPD • Steam (1,250 psi, 970F) – 1,843 TPD • Environmental Concerns • Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) (<200 ppm) • Nitrous Oxide (N2O) (<200 ppm)

  7. Ostwald Process • Industry Standard for Nitric Acid Production • Ammonia Oxidation • Nitrogen Monoxide Oxidation • Absorption of Nitrogen Dioxide with Water • Primary Chemical Reactions • Oxidation of Ammonia to Nitrogen Monoxide4NH3 (g) + 5O2 (g)  4NO (g) + 6H2O (g) • Oxidation of Nitrogen Monoxide to Nitrogen Dioxide2NO(g) + O2 (g)  2NO2 (g) • Reaction of Nitrogen Dioxide to Nitric Acid2NO2 (g) + O2 (g) + 2H2O (l)  4HNO3 (aq)

  8. Block Flow Diagram 8

  9. Process Flow Diagram

  10. Benefits of Cobalt Oxide

  11. Controlling N2O Release • Primary Methods-reduce N2O formed during ammonia oxidation • 70-85% efficiency • Add an “empty” reaction chamber between the catalyst bed and the first heat exchanger (increase residence time) • Modify the catalyst used during the ammonia oxidation • Secondary Methods-reduce N2O formed immediately after ammonia oxidation (Selective Catalytic Reduction) • Up to 90% efficiency • Secondary catalyst is used to promote N2O decomposition by increasing the residence time in the ammonia burner • 2N2O (g)  2N2 (g) + O2 (g)

  12. Controlling N2O Release • Tertiary Methods-reduce N2O from or to the tail gas (Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction) • 80-98+% efficiency • A reagent fuel (e.g. H2 from an ammonia plant purge) is used over a catalyst to produce N2 and water • Alternatively, following SCR the tail gas is mixed with ammonia and reacts over a second catalyst bed to give N2 and water

  13. Economics: Materials 13

  14. Economics: ICARUS 14

  15. Economics: NPV • Payback Period: 7 years • Expected Plant Life: 20 years • Interest Rate: 8% • Inflation Rate: 3% • Installation Time: 3 years • Installation Cost: $348 million • Net Present Value after 20 years: $984 million • Internal Rate of Return: 23.98% 15

  16. Process Safety I • Large release of process chemicals due to catastrophic failure • Be prepared, emergency procedure with LECP • Prevention of release & associated problems : • Neutralizing materials • Initial construction of components • Release valves • Bunding, dikes • Ventilation • Fireproofing • Low release of process chemicals • Caused by operator error, poor maintenance 16

  17. Process Safety II Other Safety Precautions • Long-term exposure • Maintain PEL and STEL as dictated by OSHA • Noise • Governed by OSHA, PEL of 90 dB • Maintain & lubricate equipment, sound barriers, limiting exposure • General protection • Insulate or guard heated surfaces on working floor • Good lighting • Railings & non-slip surfaces • Training, safety checklists 17

  18. Completed Report Open Report www.che397-nitric-acid.wikispaces.com

  19. Summary • Recap of Questions from the Previous Meeting • Project Overview • Design Basis • Block Flow Diagram • Process Flow Diagram • Catalyst Choice • Environmental Issues Review • Economics • Process Safety Review • Report

  20. References Parkinson, Richard. UOP. Where Does It Go? An Introduction to the Placement of Process Equipment. 2009. Available and Emerging Technologies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Nitric Acid Production Industry. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2010. <http://www.epa.gov/nsr/ghgdocs/nitricacid.pdf>. Best Available Techniques for Pollution Prevention and Control in the European Fertilizer Industry, Production of Nitric Acid. EFMA. 2000. <http://www.efma.org/PRODUCT-STEWARDSHIP- PROGRAM-10/images/EFMABATNIT.pdf>.

  21. Questions?