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Reforming Society. Chapter 8 Section 3. Reform Spirit. The reform movements of the mid-1800’s stemmed in large part from the revival of religious fervor (Second Great Awakening) Revivalist preached the power of individuals to improve themselves and their world

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Reforming society

Reforming Society

Chapter 8 Section 3


Reform spirit
Reform Spirit

  • The reform movements of the mid-1800’s stemmed in large part from the revival of religious fervor (Second Great Awakening)

    • Revivalist preached the power of individuals to improve themselves and their world

      • Lyman Beecher-believed that it was the nation’s citizens who would build a better nation

        • benevolent societies emerged

          • 1st Wanted to spread the word of God to nonbelievers and 2nd combat social problems



Reform spirit1
Reform Spirit

  • Many of the reformers who made up the reform effort were women, most of whom were unmarried

    • Issues targeted by reform groups were excessive drinking, prisons, and education


Temperance movement
Temperance Movement

  • Alcohol= crime, poverty, and disorder

  • Alcoholism was widespread during the early 1800s

    • New reformers energized the temperance movement=forming of temperance groups

      • Preached the evils of alcohol

      • Formed American Temperance Union (1833)

      • Pushed for laws to prohibit the sale of liquor

        • Maine in 1851 passed 1st state prohibition law




Prison reforms
Prison Reforms

  • Reformers also considered ways to improve the prison system

    • Inmates= violent offenders, debtors, and

      mentally ill

    • By 1816, states began to provide new facilities which created a better environment for inmates

    • Main Prison reform=rehabilitating prisoners rather than just locking them up

      • Established discipline through rigorous work

      • new prisons= penitentiaries


Educational reform
Educational Reform

  • In early 1800’s reformers pushed for a system of public education

    • Gov’t funded and opened to all citizens

  • Horace Mann- leader of public education movement (MA senator)

    • Passed bill creating a state board of education for Massachusetts

      • MA quickly became the model for the public school system in America




Educational reform1
Educational Reform

  • Calvin Wiley= Horace Mann of South (NC)

    • Provided government support to establish schools locally (through taxpayers)

    • By 1860, 2/3 of NC’s white children attended school part of the year

      • Only about 1/3 throughout the whole South

      • African American children were excluded almost entirely in the South



Educational reform2
Educational Reform

  • Women’s Education

    • Educating=only men

    • Women took advantage of the reform movement to create more opportunities for themselves

      • Emma Willard- founded a girls boarding school in Vermont

        • Consisted of cooking and etiquette, and academic subjects

      • Mary Lyon- opened 1st institution of higher education for women=Mount Holyoke Female Seminary

      • Elizabeth Blackwell- 1st woman to earn a medical degree in the U.S. or Europe

        • Founded the New York Infirmary for Women and Children=staffed entirely by women


Reforming society

Emma Willard

Elizabeth Blackwell


The early women s movement
The Early Women’s Movement

  • Read pg. 281 & 282

  • Describe “True Womanhood”

  • Catherine Beecher-

  • Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady-

  • Seneca Fall Convention-